General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD) v. 1.2.2
U of Arizona (11/19/03):


  

Concept:
  


AbessiveCase

Definition:  

AbessiveCase expresses the lack or absence of the referent of the noun it marks. It has the meaning of the English preposition 'without' (Pei and Gaynor 1954: 3,35; Gove, et al. 1966: 3).

Example:  

kirja -
book-
tta
ABESS
  bookless

Language: Finnish
Source: Branch (1987:607)
  

Concept:
  


AblativeCase

Definition:  

AblativeCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location from which another referent is moving. It has the meaning 'from'.


Comment:


Lake Miwok has ten case enclitics, illustrated in the examples. In the vocative example, the gram marked as VOC is specific to 'mother'. Other kinship terms have their own special vocative forms.

Example:  

kúku -
flea-
n
NOM
  A flea is sitting on your forehead

káac -
fish-
u
ACC
  He saw the fish

ʔóle
coyote
n
GEN
ṣúluk
skin
  coyote skin

ṭumáj -
stick-
tu
INST
  I hit him with a stick

réej
king
húukewa -
front-
m
ESS
  He's standing in front of the king

réej -
king-
to
ALL
ʔonínnuka
  He brought them to the king

má -
that-
m
ABL
  The cat came out of there

kaʔáppi -
father-
ni
COMIT
  I am walking with my father

ʔunú -
mother-
u
VOC
ʔujée
come.here
  Mother, come here!

Language: Miwok, Lake
Source: Mithun (1999:204-6),Callaghan (1963)
  

Concept:
  


AbsoluteFutureTense

Definition:  

AbsoluteFutureTense locates the event in question subsequent to the present moment; it is a prediction of some state of affairs (Comrie 1985: 43-44).


Comment:


In Chepang, a simple Future may be expressed by suffixing /-caʔ/ to the main verb as in the first example. This affix may also be used to express epistemic possibility, hence the double gloss in that example. The second and third examples illustrate the use of the suffix /-kheʔ/, in combination with tense/aspect suffixes. Caughley characterizes the difference between these examples as follows: for the second 'the action as a completed unit is about to occur', and for the third the action 'is about to begin'. The fourth example illustrates another immediate future. Caughley refers to /-dhaŋ/ as the 'Near Future Marker'. It combines with the suffix /-caʔ/.

Example:  

ŋa -
1.SG-
ʔi
AGR
goʔ -
call-
ceʔ -
FUT-
na -
2-
ŋ
1.EXCL
  I will/may call you

jaʔ -
tiger-
ʔi
AGR
mak -
devour-
kheʔ -
IMMED-
ʔa -
PST-
thəy
GOAL
  A tiger is about to devour him

kim -
house-
taŋ
ALLATIVE
dah -
arrive-
kheʔ -
IMMED-
naʔ
NONPST
  He is about to arrive at the house

ŋa -
1.SG-
ʔi -
AGR-
dhaŋ
IMMEDFUT
yo -
look-
dhaŋ -
IMMEDFUT-
ca -
FUT-
ŋʔ
1.EXCL
  'I am about to look/I will look now

Language: Chepang
Source: Bybee, Perkins, and Pagliuca (1994:245-246),Caughley (1982)
  

Concept:
  


AbsolutePastTense

Definition:  

AbsolutePastTense locates the situation in question prior to the present moment (Comrie 1985: 41).


Comment:


Agaw reportedly has a past/non-past binary tense system. Hetzron reports that for the main forms of Agaw verbs, there are combinations of two tenses and two aspects. In Hetzron's description, the two tenses are called Imperfect (used for present and future expressions) and Perfect (for past expressions). The two aspects are Definite and Indefinite. The first example is what he calls the Imperfect Definite (with a Nonpast tense). The second is the Imperfect Indefinite (also Nonpast). The third example is the Perfect Definite (a Past). The fourth is the Perfect Indefinite (also Past). The Imperfect Indefinite and the Perfect Definite are the most frequent combinations.

Example:  

desáwi
  He will study (certain)

desé
  He is studying/He will study (uncertain)

desγʷà
  He studied (certain)

desa
  He studied (and still is)/He studied (uncertain)

Language: Agaw, Western
Source: Hetzron (1969:12-13)
  

Concept:
  


AbsolutePresentTense

Definition:  

AbsolutePresentTense locates the situation in question at the present moment, though the situation rarely coincides exactly with the present moment (Comrie 1985: 37).


Comment:


Yup'ik appears to have a grammaticalized 4-way Tense distinction. Mithun includes discussion of the variable amount of time subsumed by the Yup'ik Present Tense form in the first example. Depending on the discourse situation, the present tense can cover anywhere from a time shortly before the utterance, to a day or so afterwards. The span of time covered has less to do with objective time than it does with the immediate consciousness of a speaker/hearer with regards to the experience being described. The second and third examples illustrate Immediate Future and Simple Future in the language

Example:  

nalkutaqa
  I'm finding it

nalkutell - rua - qa
  I found it

nalkut - qatar - aqa
  I'm about to find it

nalku - ciiq - aqa
  I'll find it

Language: Yupik, Central
Source: Mithun (1999:158-9)
  

Concept:
  


AbsoluteRelativeTense

Definition:  

AbsoluteRelativeTense locates the event in question in relation to a temporal reference point that, in turn, is referred to in relation to the moment of utterance; the reference point and the moment of utterance are not identical (Comrie 1985: 64-65).

  

Concept:
  


AbsoluteTense

Definition:  

AbsoluteTenseValue is the set of all values associated with the grammatical encoding of an event's location in time where the moment of utterance is the deictic center (Comrie 1985: 36).

  

Concept:
  


AbsolutiveCase

Definition:  

AbsolutiveCase in ergative-absolutive languages mark referents that would generally be the subjects of intransitive verbs or the objects of transitive verbs in the translational equivalents of nominative-accusative languages (Anderson 1985: 181; Crystal 1985: 1; Andrews and Avery 1985: 138).


Comment:


Blake uses the gloss NOM rather than ABS, a tradition among Australianists. Note in the examples above that the subject of the intransitive verb in the first example patterns after the object of the transitive verb in the second exa mple.

Example:  

w -
M-
as
child- ABS
w -
M-
eikér -
run-
ula
PRES
  The boy runs

Language: Avar
Source: Blake (2001:121),Ebeling (1966:77)
  

Concept:
  


Abstract

Definition:  

Properties or qualities as distinguished from any particular embodiment of the properties/qualities in a physical medium. Instances of Abstract can be said to exist in the same sense as mathematical objects such as sets and relations, but they cannot exist at a particular place and time without some physical encoding or embodiment.

  

Concept:
  


AccusativeCase

Definition:  

AccusativeCase in nominative-accusative languages marks certain syntactic functions, usually direct objects (Hartmann and Stork 1972: 3,156; Crystal 1980: 11,246; Andrews and Avery 1985: 75; Anderson; 1985: 181; Mish et al. 1990: 50).


Comment:


Here the nominative is zero-marked. Also, in this language nonspecific objects do not take the accusative case.

Example:  

Hasan
Hasan- NOM
öküz -
ox-
ü
ACC
aldi
buy- PST.3.SG
  Hasan bought the ox

Müdür
director- NOM
Hasan -
Hasan-
a
DAT
mektu -
letter-
u
ACC
göster -
show-
di
PST
  The director showed the letter to Hasan

Language: Turkish
Source: Blake (2001:87, 119),Comrie (1989:132-6, 175-6),Comrie (1976)
  

Concept:
  


AdessiveCase

Definition:  

AdessiveCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location near/at which another referent exists. It has the meaning of 'at' or 'near' (Crystal 1997: 8).

Example:  

karhu -
bear-
na
ESS
  at the bear

karhu -
bear-
lla
ADESS
  near the bear

karhu -
bear-
sta
ELAT
  out of the bear

karhu -
bear-
lta
ABL
  from the bear

karhu -
bear-
lle
ALL
  towards the bear

Language: Finnish
Source: Kiparsky (2001:316)
  

Concept:
  


Adjectivalization

Definition:  

An adjectivalization is a partOfSpeech whose members differ grammatically from adjectives but which functions as them (Crystal 1997:260; Mish et al. 1990:801).

  

Concept:
  


Adjective

Definition:  

An adjective is a part of speech whose members modify nouns. An adjective specifies the attributes of a noun referent. Note: this is one case among many. Adjectives are a class of modifiers (Crystal 1997:8; Mish et al. 1990:56; Payne 1997:63).

  

Concept:
  


Adposition

Definition:  

An adposition is a part of speech whose members are of a closed set and occur before or after a complement composed of a noun phrase, noun, pronoun, or clause that functions as a noun phrase and forms a single structure with the complement to express its grammatical and semantic relation to another unit within a clause (Comrie 1989:91; Crystal 1997: 305; Mish et al. 1990:929; Payne 1997:86).

  

Concept:
  


Adverb

Definition:  

An adverb, narrowly defined, is a part of speech whose members modify verbs for such categories as time, manner, place, or direction. An adverb, broadly defined, is is a part of speech whose members modify any constituent class of words other than nouns, such as verbs, adjectives, adverbs, phrases, clauses, or sentences. Under this definition, the possible type of modification depends on the class of the constituent being modified (Crystal 1997:11; Mish et al. 1990:59; Payne 1997:69).

  

Concept:
  


AdversativeCase

Definition:  

AdversativeCase expresses an antithetical circumstance. Adversative meaning can be expressed in several grammatical ways, such as through a conjunction (but), adverbial (however, nevertheless, yet, in spite of that, on the other hand), or preposition (despite, except, apart from, notwithstanding) (Crystal 1997: 11).

  

Concept:
  


AllativeCase

Definition:  

AllativeCase expresses motion to or toward the referent of the noun it marks (Pei and Gaynor 1954: 6,9,216; Lyons 1968: 299; Crystal 1985: 1213; Gove, et al. 1966: 55,2359).


Comment:


Lake Miwok has ten case enclitics, illustrated in the examples. In the vocative example, the gram marked as VOC is specific to 'mother'. Other kinship terms have their own special vocative forms.

Example:  

kúku -
flea-
n
NOM
  A flea is sitting on your forehead

káac -
fish-
u
ACC
  He saw the fish

ʔóle
coyote
n
GEN
ṣúluk
skin
  coyote skin

ṭumáj -
stick-
tu
INST
  I hit him with a stick

réej
king
húukewa -
front-
m
ESS
  He's standing in front of the king

réej -
king-
to
ALL
ʔonínnuka
  He brought them to the king

má -
that-
m
ABL
  The cat came out of there

kaʔáppi -
father-
ni
COMIT
  I am walking with my father

ʔunú -
mother-
u
VOC
ʔujée
come.here
  Mother, come here!

Language: Miwok, Lake
Source: Mithun (1999:204-6),Callaghan (1963)
  

Concept:
  


Animate

Definition:  

One of the two grammatical genders, or classes of nouns, the other being inanimate. Membership in the animate grammatical class is largely based on meanings, in that living things, including humans, animals, spirits, trees, and most plants are included in the animate class of nouns (Valentine 2001: 114).

Example:  

mEtEg#O
tree- ANIM
  tree

mEtEg#O -
tree-
g
ANIM- PL
  trees

mEtEg#O -
tree-
s
DIM- INANIM
  stick

mEtEg#O -
tree-
s -
DIM-
g
INANIM- PL
  sticks

Language: Potawatomi
Source: Buszard-Welcher (unpublished field notes)
  

Concept:
  


Article

Definition:  

An article is a member of a small class of determiners that identify a noun's definite or indefinite reference, and new or given status (Crystal 1997:26; Mish et al. 1990:105).

  

Concept:
  


AspectValue

Definition:  

AspectValue is the class of values that may be associated with the feature instance 'aspect'. AspectValue is the class of all apsect types found in language. Aspect is the grammatical encoding of various characteristics of the event referred to in an utterance. Aspect does not form a semantically contiguous class (Comrie 1976; Bybee 1985; Sasse 2002).

  

Concept:
  


Assumptive

Definition:  

Assumptive encodes the fact that the speaker came to believe the content of the expression through (possibly) unsound inference procedure. That is, it is at least reasonalbe (Palmer 2001: 6-8).


Comment:


Compare the first example, illustrating a Deductive Mood form, to the second example illustrating an Assumptive Mood form.

Example:  

díiga
soccer
apé -
play-
yi
3.SG.PST- DEDUCT
  He played soccer (I have seen evidence that he played, but I did not see him play)

díiga
soccer
apé -
play-
hīyi
3.SG.PST- ASSUMP
  He played soccer (I assume, but I have seen no evidence of this)

Language: Tuyuca
Source: Palmer (2001:36),Barnes (1984),Malone (1988)
  

Concept:
  


Attribute

Definition:  

Qualities which we cannot or choose not to reify into subclasses of Object.

  

Concept:
  


AuditoryEvidential

Definition:  

AuditoryEvidential encodes the fact that the speaker came to believe the content of the expression through direct auditory experience; they heard it. This does not include spoken reported accounts, but only direct sensory evdience, such as the situation of 'hearing a tree fall' (Palmer 2001: 38).


Comment:


Double notation with the visual evidential gloss in the first example is meant to indicate a circumfix. The second illustrates an Auditory Evidential.

Example:  

a -
VIS-
pe -
come-
re
VIS
  [I see] it coming.

pe -
come-
ra -
CUST-
rakae
AUD
  [I hear] it coming.

Language: Fasu
Source: Palmer (2001:38),Foley (1986)
  

Concept:
  


AversiveCase

Definition:  

Marks the noun whose referent is the object of avoidance; also called the evitative (Blake 1998: 154).

Example:  

yanyi -
ghost-
ŋkuŋu
AVERS
rumpi
fear
  S/he is afraid of ghosts

Language: Kalkutung
Source: Blake (2001:154-155)
  

Concept:
  


BenefactiveCase

Definition:  

BenefactiveCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks receives the benefit of the situation expressed by the clause (Crystal 1980: 43; Gove, et al. 1966: 203).

Example:  

ama -
mother-
rentzat
SG.BEN
eros -
buy-
i
PERF
d -
3.ABS-
it -
PRES-
u -
PL-
t
AUX2.1.SG.ERG
lore -
flower-
ak
PL.ABS
  I have bought some flowers for mother

Language: Basque
Source: Saltarelli (1988:156)
  

Concept:
  


BoundRoot

Definition:  

BoundRoot is the class of bound units whose members are common to a set of derived or inflected units, if any, when all bound units are removed. They are not further analyzable into meaningful elements, being morphologically simple. Also, they designate the principle portion of meaning of the unit to which it belongs (Crystal 1985:268; Hartmann and Stork 1972:199; Pei and Gaynor 1954:187-188; Mish et al. 1990:1023; Matthews 1991:64).

  

Concept:
  


BoundStem

Definition:  

BoundStem is the class of units whose members are decomposable into a root or roots and a derivational unit, and are only expressed by bound forms in the language (Crystal 1985:287; Mish et al. 1990:1154).

  

Concept:
  


CaseValue

Definition:  

CaseValue is the class of values that may be associated with the feature instance 'case'. CaseValue is the class of all case types found in language. Case is a system of marking dependent nouns for the type of relationship (syntactic or semantic) they bear to some other element in the sentence, such as a verb, noun, pronoun, or adposition(Pei and Gaynor 1954: 35; Crystal 1980: 5354; Anderson 1985: 179180; Andrews 1985: 7172; Mish et al. 1990: 211; Kuno 1973: 45; Blake 2001).

  

Concept:
  


Categorical

Definition:  

Categorical encodes that fact that the speaker knows the expressed proposition to be true (Palmer 2001: 37, 68-69).


Comment:


The first example, with an assertion clitic, may be compared to the second with a categorical assertion clitic.

Example:  

waŋa:y -
NEG-
ba: -
ASSERT-
na
3.ABS
yana -
walk-
nhi
PST
  He didn't walk (again)

guni:m -
mother-
baa -
ABS-
nu:
CATEGORIALASSERT- 2.OBL
balu -
die-
y -
COMM-
aga
IRREAL
  Your mother is bound to die

Language: Wangaaybuwan-ngiyambaa
Source: Palmer (2001:83),Donaldson (1980)
  

Concept:
  


CausalCase

Definition:  

Used to mark the noun whose referent is the cause of some event, found in Archi (Kibrik 1998: 468).

Example:  

piciri -
pituri-
t̪uŋu
CAUS
ŋai
I
mil̪t̪i
eyes
wakini
spin
  I'm high on pituri

Language: Kalkutung
Source: Blake (1979:47)
  

Concept:
  


Character

Definition:  

Character is the minimal orthographic unit.

  

Concept:
  


Class

Definition:  

Classes differ from Sets in two important respects. First, Classes are not assumed to be extensional. That is, distinct Classes might well have exactly the same instances. Second, Classes typically have an associated `condition' that determines the instances of the Class. So, for example, the condition `human' determines the Class of Humans. Note that some Classes might satisfy their own condition (e.g., the Class of Abstract things is Abstract) and hence be instances of themselves.

  

Concept:
  


Clause

Definition:  

A clause is a minimal unit including a predicate, all arguments of the predicate, and all modifiers of the predicate and the arguments.

  

Concept:
  


Clitic

Definition:  

Clitic is the class of units which members exhibit syntactic characteristics of a lexical unit, but show evidence of being morphologically bound to another lexical unit, the host, by being unstressed or subject to word-level phonological rules (Crystal 1980:64; Hartmann and Stork 1972:38; Anderson 1985:158; Klavans 1982: xi-xiv, 74-76,83,93-95,100-101; Zwicky 1977:5).

  

Concept:
  


CloseFutureTense

Definition:  

CloseFutureTense, also called 'immediate future', locates the situation in question shortly after the moment of utterance (Dahl 1985:121; Comrie 1985:94; Bybee, Perkins, and Pagliuca 1994: 244-245).


Comment:


In Chepang, a simple Future may be expressed by suffixing /-caʔ/ to the main verb as in the first example. This affix may also be used to express epistemic possibility, hence the double gloss in that example. The second and third examples illustrate the use of the suffix /-kheʔ/, in combination with tense/aspect suffixes. Caughley characterizes the difference between these examples as follows: for the second 'the action as a completed unit is about to occur', and for the third the action 'is about to begin'. The fourth example illustrates another immediate future. Caughley refers to /-dhaŋ/ as the 'Near Future Marker'. It combines with the suffix /-caʔ/.

Example:  

ŋa -
1.SG-
ʔi
AGR
goʔ -
call-
ceʔ -
FUT-
na -
2-
ŋ
1.EXCL
  I will/may call you

jaʔ -
tiger-
ʔi
AGR
mak -
devour-
kheʔ -
IMMED-
ʔa -
PST-
thəy
GOAL
  A tiger is about to devour him

kim -
house-
taŋ
ALLATIVE
dah -
arrive-
kheʔ -
IMMED-
naʔ
NONPST
  He is about to arrive at the house

ŋa -
1.SG-
ʔi -
AGR-
dhaŋ
IMMEDFUT
yo -
look-
dhaŋ -
IMMEDFUT-
ca -
FUT-
ŋʔ
1.EXCL
  'I am about to look/I will look now

Language: Chepang
Source: Bybee, Perkins, and Pagliuca (1994:245-246),Caughley (1982)
  

Concept:
  


ClosedFeature

Definition:  

ClosedFeature is the set of features with a simple value, e.g., the feature 'tense' which may have the feature 'past' (Maxwell, Simons and Hayashi 2001).

  

Concept:
  


ClosedMorphoSyntacticFeature

Definition:  

ClosedMorphoSyntacticFeature identifies the particular grammatical category to which a simple FeatureValue is assigned. It is the first member of a FeatureSpecification. Any grammatical category, such as 'tense' or 'aspect', can be represented as a ClosedMorphoSyntacticFeature in a given language. A set of Features forms an integral part of a language's FeatureSystem. (Maxwell, Simons and Hayashi 2001).

  

Concept:
  


ClosedSpecification

Definition:  

ClosedSpecification is a kind of FeatureSpecification whose first element must be an instance of Feature and whose second element must be an instance of FeatureValue (Maxwell, Simons, and Hayashi 2001).

  

Concept:
  


ComitativeCase

Definition:  

ComitativeCase expresses accompaniment. It carries the meaning 'with' or 'accompanied by' (Anderson, Stephen 1985: 186; Pei and Gaynor 1954: 42;Dixon, R. 1972: 12; Gove, et al. 1966: 455).


Comment:


Lake Miwok has ten case enclitics, illustrated in the examples. In the vocative example, the gram marked as VOC is specific to 'mother'. Other kinship terms have their own special vocative forms.

Example:  

kúku -
flea-
n
NOM
  A flea is sitting on your forehead

káac -
fish-
u
ACC
  He saw the fish

ʔóle
coyote
n
GEN
ṣúluk
skin
  coyote skin

ṭumáj -
stick-
tu
INST
  I hit him with a stick

réej
king
húukewa -
front-
m
ESS
  He's standing in front of the king

réej -
king-
to
ALL
ʔonínnuka
  He brought them to the king

má -
that-
m
ABL
  The cat came out of there

kaʔáppi -
father-
ni
COMIT
  I am walking with my father

ʔunú -
mother-
u
VOC
ʔujée
come.here
  Mother, come here!

Language: Miwok, Lake
Source: Mithun (1999:204-6),Callaghan (1963)
  

Concept:
  


Commisive

Definition:  

Commisive encodes that the speaker promises or threatens to perform some action (Palmer 2001: 10, 72).


Comment:


Palmer notes that most languages do not have a specific grammatical form for Commisives. In Ngiyambaa it appears that the marker glossed COMM combined with the Irrealis marker is used epistemically for 'might' or 'likely' and deontically for authoritative 'shall'. Palmer also reports that Ngiyambaa has a different inflectional form for the obligative or 'purposive' mood.

Example:  

waŋa:y -
NEG-
ndu -
2.NOM-
gal
PL
dhagurma -
cemetery-
gu
DAT
yana -
go-
y -
COMM-
aga
IRREAL
  You shall none of you go to the cemetery

Language: Wangaaybuwan-ngiyambaa
Source: Palmer (2001:36),Donaldson (1980)
  

Concept:
  


ComparativeCase

Definition:  

ComparitiveCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks has some property to a lesser extent than that of the referent of some other noun; found in Archi (Kibrik 1998: 469) and in some Dravidian languages (Blake 1998: 155).

Example:  

qɪinn -
bridge-
i -
OBL.SG-
Xur
COMPAR
  than a/the bridge

Language: Archi
Source: Kibrik (1991:256)
  

Concept:
  


CompletiveAspect

Definition:  

CompletiveAspect, also called the egressive, encodes the end portion of some event. In order to be a completive, the case in question should be clearly differentiated in the grammar from an ordinary perfective which also implies that the event is completed (Bybee, Perkins, and Pagliuca 1994: 54; Payne 1997: 240; Dahl 1999: 33).


Comment:


The first example, with completive aspect, may be compared with the second example, which lacks completive aspect.

Example:  

i -
1.SG-
vu -
paddle-
kia
COMPL
Domove
Domove
davi
and.then
e -
1.SG-
pare
cast.net
pamo
net
  I paddled to Domove, and then cast my net.

e -
1.SG-
vu
paddle
e -
1.SG-
keoi -
cast.net-
na
APPL
  I went fishing

Language: Warembori
Source: Donohue (1999a:65)
  

Concept:
  


ComplexFeature

Definition:  

ComplexFeature is the set of features which have complex values, that is, which have a FeatureSpecification as its value (Maxwell, Simons and Hayashi 2001).

  

Concept:
  


ComplexLexicalUnit

Definition:  

ComplexLexicalUnit

  

Concept:
  


ComplexMorphoSyntacticFeature

Definition:  

ComplexMorphoSyntacticFeature identifies the particular grammatical category to which a FeatureSpecification is assigned. This class is used to assign multiple values to a single feature, e.g., 'agreement' (Maxwell, Simons and Hayashi 2001).

  

Concept:
  


ComplexOrthWord

Definition:  

A ComplexOrthWord is made up of two or more WrittenLinguisticExpressions.

  

Concept:
  


ComplexSpecification

Definition:  

ComplexSpecification is a kind of FeatureSpecification whose first element must be an instance of Feature and whose second element must be an instance of FeatureStructure. This class gives a feature system its recursive properites (Maxwell, Simons, and Hayashi 2001).

  

Concept:
  


Compound

Definition:  

Compound

  

Concept:
  


Connective

Definition:  

Also known as a conjunction, a Connective is a class of parts of speech whose members syntactically link words or larger constituents, and expresses a semantic relationship between them. A conjunction is positionally fixed relative to one or more of the elements related by it, thus distinguishing it from constituents such as English conjunctive adverbs (Crystal 1997:81; Mish et al. 1990:277-278).

  

Concept:
  


ContablativeCase

Definition:  

ContablativeCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location from near which another referent is moving. It has the meaning 'from near'.

Example:  

aɪnš -
apple-
lit
SG.SUPERESS
  on the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUBESS
ʟ́
  under the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.INESS
a
  inside the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
um -
PL.INTERESS
če -

  between the apples

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUPERLAT
t̄ -
iš
  onto the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUBLAT
L'ak
  towards the underneath of the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
l -
SG.ILL
a -
k
  into the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
l -
SG.INTERLAT
qɪak
  towards the middle of the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.CONTLAT
rak
  in the vicinity of the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUPERABL
t̄iš
  from over the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUBABL
L'aš
  from under the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
l -
SG.INABL
a -

  from within the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.INTERABL
qɪaŝ
  from between the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.CONTABL
raš
  from near the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUPERALL
t̄iši
  towards over the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUBALL
L'aši
  towards under the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.INALL
aši
  towards inside the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
PL.INTERALL
um -
če -
qɪaši
  towards between the apples

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.CONTALL
rši
  towards near the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUPERTRANS
t̄iXut
  along the region over the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUBTRANS
L'aXut
  along the region over the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.INTRANS
aXut
  along the region over the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.INTERTRANS
qIaXut
  along the region over the apple

Language: Archi
Source: Kibrik (1998:470-1)
  

Concept:
  


ContallativeCase

Definition:  

ContallativeCase expresses that something is moving toward the vicinity of the referent of the noun it marks. It has the meaning 'towards the vicinity of'.

Example:  

aɪnš -
apple-
lit
SG.SUPERESS
  on the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUBESS
ʟ́
  under the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.INESS
a
  inside the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
um -
PL.INTERESS
če -

  between the apples

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUPERLAT
t̄ -
iš
  onto the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUBLAT
L'ak
  towards the underneath of the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
l -
SG.ILL
a -
k
  into the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
l -
SG.INTERLAT
qɪak
  towards the middle of the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.CONTLAT
rak
  in the vicinity of the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUPERABL
t̄iš
  from over the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUBABL
L'aš
  from under the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
l -
SG.INABL
a -

  from within the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.INTERABL
qɪaŝ
  from between the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.CONTABL
raš
  from near the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUPERALL
t̄iši
  towards over the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUBALL
L'aši
  towards under the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.INALL
aši
  towards inside the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
PL.INTERALL
um -
če -
qɪaši
  towards between the apples

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.CONTALL
rši
  towards near the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUPERTRANS
t̄iXut
  along the region over the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUBTRANS
L'aXut
  along the region over the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.INTRANS
aXut
  along the region over the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.INTERTRANS
qIaXut
  along the region over the apple

Language: Archi
Source: Kibrik (1998:470-1)
  

Concept:
  


ContentBearingObject

Definition:  

Any SelfConnectedObject that expresses information.

  

Concept:
  


ConterminativeCase

Definition:  

ConterminativeCase expresses the notion of something moving into the vicinity of the referent of the noun it marks, but not through that region. It has the meaning 'moving into the vicinity of'.

  

Concept:
  


ContlativeCase

Definition:  

ContlativeCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location in the vicinity of which another referent is moving. It has the meaning 'in the vicinity of'.

Example:  

aɪnš -
apple-
lit
SG.SUPERESS
  on the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUBESS
ʟ́
  under the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.INESS
a
  inside the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
um -
PL.INTERESS
če -

  between the apples

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUPERLAT
t̄ -
iš
  onto the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUBLAT
L'ak
  towards the underneath of the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
l -
SG.ILL
a -
k
  into the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
l -
SG.INTERLAT
qɪak
  towards the middle of the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.CONTLAT
rak
  in the vicinity of the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUPERABL
t̄iš
  from over the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUBABL
L'aš
  from under the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
l -
SG.INABL
a -

  from within the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.INTERABL
qɪaŝ
  from between the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.CONTABL
raš
  from near the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUPERALL
t̄iši
  towards over the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUBALL
L'aši
  towards under the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.INALL
aši
  towards inside the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
PL.INTERALL
um -
če -
qɪaši
  towards between the apples

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.CONTALL
rši
  towards near the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUPERTRANS
t̄iXut
  along the region over the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUBTRANS
L'aXut
  along the region over the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.INTRANS
aXut
  along the region over the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.INTERTRANS
qIaXut
  along the region over the apple

Language: Archi
Source: Kibrik (1998:470-1)
  

Concept:
  


CoordinatingConnective

Definition:  

A coordinating connective is a connective that links constituents without syntactically subordinating one to the other (Crystal 1997:93; Mish et al. 1990:288).

  

Concept:
  


DativeCase

Definition:  

DativeCase marks 1) indirect objects (for languages in which they are held to exist) or 2) nouns having the role of recipient (as of things given), beneficiary of an action, or possessor of an item (Crystal 1980: 102; Gove, et al. 1966: 577).


Comment:


Here the nominative is zero-marked. Also, in this language nonspecific objects do not take the accusative case.

Example:  

Hasan
Hasan- NOM
öküz -
ox-
ü
ACC
aldi
buy- PST.3.SG
  Hasan bought the ox

Müdür
director- NOM
Hasan -
Hasan-
a
DAT
mektu -
letter-
u
ACC
göster -
show-
di
PST
  The director showed the letter to Hasan

Language: Turkish
Source: Blake (2001:87, 119),Comrie (1989:132-6, 175-6),Comrie (1976)
  

Concept:
  


Deductive

Definition:  

Deductive encodes the fact that the speaker came to believe the content of the expression through sound inference procedure. That is, it is the only possible conclusion (Palmer 2001: 6-8).


Comment:


Compare the first example above illustrating the Deductive 'cha'-form to the second example illustrating the Speculative 'sica' form in this language.

Example:  

chihoraca
at.that.time
mal -
bad-
cha
SPEC
cado
it
carca
was
fiide
baptismal
del
cerificate
bautismo
  At that time the baptismal certificate must have been incomplete (deduced)

yuyanacurca -
they.were.thinking-
sica
DEDUCT
chica
that
cajita
be
huamra
child
  I suppose they were thinking he was a child (speculated)

Language: Inga
Source: Palmer (2001:27-28),Levinsohn (1975)
  

Concept:
  


DelativeCase

Definition:  

DelativeCase expresses motion downward from the referent of the noun it marks (Pei and Gaynor 1954: 53; Gove, et al. 1966: 595).

  

Concept:
  


DerivationalUnit

Definition:  

DerivationalUnit is the class of sublexical units whose members function to derive a new lexical unit from an existing one, by systematically changing the meaning and possibly altering the partOfSpeech feature of the Root or Stem it attaches to (Hartmann and Stork 1972:62; Crystal 1985:89; Mish et al. 1990:342; Bybee 1985:81-82, 99).

  

Concept:
  


Determiner

Definition:  

A Determiner is a partOfSpeech whose members belong to a class of noun modifiers and express the reference, including quantity, of a noun (Crystal 1997:112; Mish et al. 1990:346).

  

Concept:
  


DirectEvidential

Definition:  

DirectEvidential, also called sensory, encodes the fact that the speaker came to believe the content of the expression by having direct sensory experience of some situation; this does not include hearing about it from someone else (Palmer 2001: 35-36).


Comment:


Palmer refers to the Direct Evidential as Sensory Evidential and the Indirect Evidential as the 'reported' or 'linguistic evidential'

Example:  

ŋindu -
you-
gara
NOM- SENSE
girambiyi
sick- PST
  One can see you were sick

ŋindu -
you-
dhan
NOM- LINGEVID
girambiyi
sick- PST
  You are said to have been sick

Language: Wangaaybuwan-ngiyambaa
Source: Palmer (2001:36),Donaldson (1980)
  

Concept:
  


DirectionalCase

Definition:  

Represents a dynamic spatial relation (involving movement) between two Objects.

  

Concept:
  


Dubitative

Definition:  

Dubitative encodes a speakers doubt or uncertainty about a proposition (Palmer 2001).

  

Concept:
  


DynamicityAspect

Definition:  

DynamicityAspect refers to the degree to which an event is expressed as an on going process, i.e., as progressive or not (Bybee, Perkins and Pagliuca 1994: 127-139).

  

Concept:
  


ElativeCase

Definition:  

ElativeCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location out of which another referent is moving. It has the meaning 'out of' (Lyons 1968: 299; Pei and Gaynor 1954: 64; Crystal 1985: 106; Gove, et al. 1966: 730).

Example:  

karhu -
bear-
na
ESS
  at the bear

karhu -
bear-
lla
ADESS
  near the bear

karhu -
bear-
sta
ELAT
  out of the bear

karhu -
bear-
lta
ABL
  from the bear

karhu -
bear-
lle
ALL
  towards the bear

Language: Finnish
Source: Kiparsky (2001:316)
  

Concept:
  


Enclitic

Definition:  

An enclitic is a clitic that is phonologically joined at the end of a preceding lexical unit to form a single phonological unit (Crystal 1980:64; Pei and Gaynor 1954:65; Mish et al. 1990:409).

  

Concept:
  


Entity

Definition:  

The universal class of individuals. This is the root node of the ontology.

  

Concept:
  


EquativeCase

Definition:  

EquativeCase expresses 'likeness of' or 'identity to' the referent of the noun it marks. It mean: 'as', 'like', and 'in the capacity of'; in some instances, it may have the meaning 'occurs in the manner typical of the referent' (Kibrik 1998: 469).

Example:  

te -
they-
jamj
OBL.PL.ERG
L'an
want- NEUTER
nen
we- NOM
za -
REFL.OBL.PL-
qɪdi
EQU
lagum
song- NOM
Xabu -
sing-
s
FIN
  They want us to sign in their fashion

Language: Archi
Source: Kibrik (1998:470)
  

Concept:
  


ErgativeCase

Definition:  

ErgativeCase in ergative-absolutive languages generally identifies the subject of transitive verbs in the translation equivalents of nominative-accusative Languages such as English (Crystal 1980: 134; Hartmann and Stork 1972: 78; Pei and Gaynor 1954: 67; Andrews and Avery 1985: 138).


Comment:


Blake uses the gloss NOM rather than ABS, a tradition among Australianists. Note in the examples above that the subject of the intransitive verb in the first example patterns after the object of the transitive verb in the second exa mple.

Example:  

w -
M-
as
child- ABS
w -
M-
eikér -
run-
ula
PRES
  The boy runs

Language: Avar
Source: Blake (2001:121),Ebeling (1966:77)
  

Concept:
  


EssiveCase

Definition:  

EssiveCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location at which another referent exists (Lyons 1968: 299,301; Gove, et al. 1966: 778; Crystal 1985: 112; Blake 1994:= 154-5).


Comment:


Lake Miwok has ten case enclitics, illustrated in the examples. In the vocative example, the gram marked as VOC is specific to 'mother'. Other kinship terms have their own special vocative forms.

Example:  

kúku -
flea-
n
NOM
  A flea is sitting on your forehead

káac -
fish-
u
ACC
  He saw the fish

ʔóle
coyote
n
GEN
ṣúluk
skin
  coyote skin

ṭumáj -
stick-
tu
INST
  I hit him with a stick

réej
king
húukewa -
front-
m
ESS
  He's standing in front of the king

réej -
king-
to
ALL
ʔonínnuka
  He brought them to the king

má -
that-
m
ABL
  The cat came out of there

kaʔáppi -
father-
ni
COMIT
  I am walking with my father

ʔunú -
mother-
u
VOC
ʔujée
come.here
  Mother, come here!

Language: Miwok, Lake
Source: Mithun (1999:204-6),Callaghan (1963)
  

Concept:
  


EvaluativeValue

Definition:  

EvaluativeValue is the class of values that may be associated with the feature instance 'evaluative'. EvaluativeValue is the class of all evaluative types found in language.

  

Concept:
  


Feature

Definition:  

Feature, also called a quality or a feature name, is the class of attributes that may be associated with entities. Features have as their values instances of FeatureValue. That is, specific features have specific values associated with them, e.g., the feature 'tense' has 'past', 'present', ..., 'future' as values. In the broader domain, the class of Feature can be thought of as the set of qualities associated with some object in general, e.g., color, size, shape, etc. (Shieber 1986: 12; G=C3=A4rdenfors 2000; Masolo et al. 2002).

  

Concept:
  


FeatureConstraint

Definition:  

FeatureConstraint is the class of all lists, duples, which contain as the first member a partOfSpeechValue and, as its second, a set of Features. This essentially gives part of speech a priviledged status in a FeatureSystem. That is, the part of speech determines which Features may be associated with a particular linguistic unit.

  

Concept:
  


FeatureSpecification

Definition:  

A FeatureSpecification is an ordered list, a duple, whose first element must be an instance of Feature and whose second element is either an instance of FeatureValue or FeatureStructure (Maxwell, Simons, and Hayashi 2001).

  

Concept:
  


FeatureStructure

Definition:  

A FeatureStructure is a set of zero or more FeatureSpecifications. A FeatureStructure is a kind of information structure, a container or data structure, expressly to group qualities or features of some object. In a grammatical feature system, a FeatureStructure holds the grammatical information associated with some linguistic unit. In a typed feature system, a FeatureStructure has an associated type, usually a PartOfSpeechValue. (Shieber 1986; Maxwell, Simons, and Hayashi 2001).

  

Concept:
  


FeatureSystem

Definition:  

FeatureSystem is the class of grammatical systems which uses features and values to represent grammatical information. It can be assumed that only one feature system exists per language data project. A FeatureSystem consists of a set of FeatureValueAssociations, which is a set of features and their allowable values, and a set of FeatureConstraints (Maxwell, Simons, and Hayashi 2001).

  

Concept:
  


FeatureValue

Definition:  

FeatureValue is the class of values that may be associated with instances of Feature. That is, specific features have specific feature values associated with them, e.g., the feature 'tense' has 'past', 'present', ..., 'future' as values. In the broader domain, the class of FeatureValue can be thought of as the set of qualia associated with some feature in general, a point in cognitive space. E.g., red is a quale in color space (Shieber 1986: 12; Maxwell, Simons, and Hayashi 2001; G=C3=A4rdenfors 2000; Masolo et al. 2002).

  

Concept:
  


FeatureValueAssociation

Definition:  

FeatureValueAssociation is the class of all lists, duples, which contain as the first member a Feature and as the second a set of FeatureValues.

  

Concept:
  


FolkloreEvidential

Definition:  

FolkloreEvidential encodes the fact that the speaker came to believe the content of the expression through legend, folklore or some other established tradition (Palmer 2001: 40).


Comment:


Palmer refers to the folklore evidential as a general knowledge evidential. The first example, a Folklore Evidential, may be compared to the hearsay evidential in the second example. The hearsay evidential in this language appears to subsume Second and Thirdhand Evidentials. The third example illustrates the Inference Evidential.

Example:  

čhéemul -
rain.fell-
ʔma
FOLK
  It rained (that's an established fact)

čhéemul -
rain.fell-
ʔdo
HSY
  It rained (I was told)

čhéemul -
rain.fell-
ʔka
INFEVID
  It rained (everything is wet)

Language: Pomo, Central
Source: Palmer (2001:6),Mithun (1999)
  

Concept:
  


FreeRoot

Definition:  

FreeRoot is the class of free units whose members are common to a set of derived or inflected units, if any, when all bound units are removed. They are not further analyzable into meaningful elements, being morphologically simple. Also, they designate the principle portion of meaning of the unit to which it belongs (Crystal 1985:268; Hartmann and Stork 1972:199; Pei and Gaynor 1954:187-188; Mish et al. 1990:1023; Matthews 1991:64).

  

Concept:
  


FreeStem

Definition:  

FreeStem is the class of units whose members are decomposable into a root or roots and a derivational unit. They are expressed by the free forms of the language (Crystal 1985:287; Mish et al. 1990:1154).

  

Concept:
  


FutureInFutureTense

Definition:  

FutureInFutureTense locates the situation in question in the future, relative to a temporal reference point that itself is located in the future relative to the moment of utterance.

  

Concept:
  


FutureInPastTense

Definition:  

FutureInPastTense locates the situation in question in the future, relative to a contextually determined temporal reference point that itself must be located in the past relative to the moment of utterance.


Comment:


Here the tense of the auxiliary 'to be' locates a a past or future reference point relative to which the main verb occurs. The first example may be understood as Past in Past, or Past Perfect. The second may be understood as Past in Future, or Future Perfect. The third example may be understood as Future in Past. Comrie calls this last 'Conditional'.

Example:  

kien
he.was
qatel
he.killed
  he had been killing

se jkun
he.will.be
qatel
he.killed
  he had been killing

kien
he.was
se joqtol
he.will.kill
  he would be killing

Language: Maltese
Source: Comrie (1985:77)
  

Concept:
  


FuturePerfectTense

Definition:  

FuturePerfectTense locates the situation in question before a contextually determined temporal reference point that must be located in the future relative to the moment of utterance (Comrie 1985:69-71).


Comment:


Here the tense of the auxiliary 'to be' locates a a past or future reference point relative to which the main verb occurs. The first example may be understood as Past in Past, or Past Perfect. The second may be understood as Past in Future, or Future Perfect. The third example may be understood as Future in Past. Comrie calls this last 'Conditional'.

Example:  

kien
he.was
qatel
he.killed
  he had been killing

se jkun
he.will.be
qatel
he.killed
  he had been killing

kien
he.was
se joqtol
he.will.kill
  he would be killing

Language: Maltese
Source: Comrie (1985:77)
  

Concept:
  


Gender

Definition:  

A grammatical category used for the analysis of word-classes displaying such contrasts as masculine/feminine/neuter, animate/inanimate, etc. (Crystal 1980: 164-165).

  

Concept:
  


GenderValue

Definition:  

GenderValue is the class of values that may be associated with the feature instance 'gender'. GenderValue is the class of all gender types found in language.

  

Concept:
  


GeneralAbilitive

Definition:  

GeneralAbilitive is a very frequently occurring modality which encodes that the agent is able to perform some action. The conditions are external to the agent (Bybee, Perkins, and Pagliuca 1994: 177; Palmer 2001: 76)


Comment:


The first two Lisu examples may be interpreted as General Abilitive Mood. The third illustrates Mental Abilitive Mood. The fourth illustrates Physical Abilitive Mood.

Example:  

ása
Asa
nya
TOP
ami
field
khwa
hoe
tyè -
freedom.taboo-

DEC
  It is not taboo for Asa to hoe fields

ása
Asa
nya
TOP
ami
field
khwa
hoe
bala -
no.hindrance-

DEC
  Asa is free to hoe fields

ása
Asa
nya
TOP
ami
field
khwa
hoe
kwú -
mentally.able-

DEC
  Asa is able (knows how) to hoe fields

ása
Asa
nya
TOP
ami
field
khwa
hoe
kwú -
able-

DEC
  Asa is physically able to hoe fields

Language: Lisu
Source: Palmer (2001:77),Hope (1974)
  

Concept:
  


GenitiveCase

Definition:  

GenitiveCase is used to mark the noun whose referent is the possessor of the referent of another noun (Crystal 1980: 161; Hartmann and Stork 1972: 9495,180; Pei and Gaynor 1954: 82,172; Anderson 1985: 185; Mish et al. 1990: 511; Fleming 1988: 10).


Comment:


Lake Miwok has ten case enclitics, illustrated in the examples. In the vocative example, the gram marked as VOC is specific to 'mother'. Other kinship terms have their own special vocative forms.

Example:  

kúku -
flea-
n
NOM
  A flea is sitting on your forehead

káac -
fish-
u
ACC
  He saw the fish

ʔóle
coyote
n
GEN
ṣúluk
skin
  coyote skin

ṭumáj -
stick-
tu
INST
  I hit him with a stick

réej
king
húukewa -
front-
m
ESS
  He's standing in front of the king

réej -
king-
to
ALL
ʔonínnuka
  He brought them to the king

má -
that-
m
ABL
  The cat came out of there

kaʔáppi -
father-
ni
COMIT
  I am walking with my father

ʔunú -
mother-
u
VOC
ʔujée
come.here
  Mother, come here!

Language: Miwok, Lake
Source: Mithun (1999:204-6),Callaghan (1963)
  

Concept:
  


GrammaticalCase

Definition:  

Subsumes the Cases that are assigned by the verb. These Cases often correspond to the SemanticRoles in the Sentence.

  

Concept:
  


HabitualAspect

Definition:  

HabitualAspect, also called the durative, encodes the situation where an event takes place over an extended period of time. This is, it refers to not just one event but many events of the same type. The occurrence of the events may be protracted indefinitely in time. If the event is a state, then the state is said to hold for some time. If the event is an achievement or an accomplishment, then it may occur again and again. The time interval which is relevant to the habitual is relatively longer than in the case of the iterative (Comrie 1976: 28; Bybee 1985: 142; Payne 1997: 241; Dahl 1999: 32).

Example:  

é -
3-
du -
eat-
a
HAB
mɔ́li
rice
  He/she eats rice habitually

é -
3-
ga -
ITR-
du
eat
mɔ́li
rice
  He/She repeatedly ate rice

Language: Ewe
Source: Payne (1997:242)
  

Concept:
  


HesternalPastTense

Definition:  

HesternalPastTense locates the situation in question somewhere in the span beginning with the period defined culturally as 'yesterday' and extends back through some period that is considered nonremote (Comrie 1985:87-88; Dahl 1985:126).

  

Concept:
  


HodiernalFutureTense

Definition:  

HodiernalFutureTense locates the situation in question after the moment of utterance within the span culturally defined as 'today' (Comrie 1985: 86; Bybee, Perkins, and Pagliuca 1994: 247).


Comment:


The affix kũ- in the first example may be used to mark either Hodiernal Past or Hodiernal Future depending on what aspect markers co-occur with it in the verb. Also, in the examples above, the final vowel of each verb is phonological, hence there is no correspondent for it in the interlinear gloss.

Example:  

Kamau
Kamau
a -
2.SG-
kũ -
HODFUT-
nyu -
drink
a
ũcũrũ
14.porridge
  Kamau will drink porridge (within the day)

Kamau
Kamau
a -
2.SG-
rĩĩ -
CLOSEFUT-
nyu -
drink
a
ũcũrũ
14.porridge
  Kamau will drink porridge (within the next few days)

Kamau
Kamau
a -
2.SG-
rĩĩ -
REMFUT-
nyu -
drink
a
ũcũrũ
14.porridge
  Kamau will drink porridge (sometime beyond a few days from now)

Language: Gikuyu
Source: Mugane (1997)
  

Concept:
  


HodiernalPastTense

Definition:  

HodiernalPastTense locates the situation in question before the moment of utterance within the span culturally defined as 'today' (Comrie 1985:87; Dahl 1985:125-126)


Comment:


Bybee, et al divide past tense systems into those that refer to daily cycles and those that do not. Typically, languages with past tenses that refer to a daily cycle will have tense that specifies 'today' and all others will refer to spans of time prior to 'today' (Bybee, et al 1994:99, Dahl 1985:125; Comrie 1985:93). Cocama is such a language. The examples above illustrate its three-way system of remoteness distinctions in the past tense.

Example:  

Ritama -
town-
ca
to
tutsu -
go-
tsuri
REMPST
  I went to town a long time ago

Ritama -
town-
ca
to
tutsu -
go-
icuá
PREHODPST
  I went to town yesterday/a few days ago

Ritama -
town-
ca
to
tuts -
go-
ui
HODPST
  I went to town today

Language: Cocama-cocamilla
Source: Bybee, Perkins, and Pagliuca (1994:98-99),Faust (1978)
  

Concept:
  


IllativeCase

Definition:  

IllativeCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location into which another referent is moving. It has the meaning 'into' (Lyons 1968: 299; Gove, et al. 1966: 1126; Crystal 1985: 152).

Example:  

aɪnš -
apple-
lit
SG.SUPERESS
  on the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUBESS
ʟ́
  under the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.INESS
a
  inside the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
um -
PL.INTERESS
če -

  between the apples

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUPERLAT
t̄ -
iš
  onto the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUBLAT
L'ak
  towards the underneath of the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
l -
SG.ILL
a -
k
  into the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
l -
SG.INTERLAT
qɪak
  towards the middle of the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.CONTLAT
rak
  in the vicinity of the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUPERABL
t̄iš
  from over the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUBABL
L'aš
  from under the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
l -
SG.INABL
a -

  from within the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.INTERABL
qɪaŝ
  from between the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.CONTABL
raš
  from near the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUPERALL
t̄iši
  towards over the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUBALL
L'aši
  towards under the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.INALL
aši
  towards inside the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
PL.INTERALL
um -
če -
qɪaši
  towards between the apples

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.CONTALL
rši
  towards near the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUPERTRANS
t̄iXut
  along the region over the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUBTRANS
L'aXut
  along the region over the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.INTRANS
aXut
  along the region over the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.INTERTRANS
qIaXut
  along the region over the apple

Language: Archi
Source: Kibrik (1998:470-1)
  

Concept:
  


ImmediatePastTense

Definition:  

ImmediatePastTense locates the situation in question at a time considered very recent in relation to the moment of utterance (Comrie 1985: 87).

  

Concept:
  


ImperfectiveAspect

Definition:  

ImperfectiveAspect encodes the internal temporal structure of an event from within. It indicates that the event is a process without emphasizing its end points, although there may be the entailment that the event has a starting/end point (Comrie 1976: 24; Dahl 1999: 33).


Comment:


The first of the examples illustrates imperfective aspect and may be compared with the second example, which illustrates perfective aspect.

Example:  

to
he
tikDe
there
jat
going- IMPERF
hota
was
  he was going there (he was on the way)

to
he
tikDe
there
gela
gone- PERFECTIVE
hota
was
  he went there

Language: Marathi
Source: Bhat (1999:46),Bernsten and Nimbkar (1982)
  

Concept:
  


InablativeCase

Definition:  

InablativeCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location from within which another referent is moving. It has the meaning 'from within'.

Example:  

aɪnš -
apple-
lit
SG.SUPERESS
  on the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUBESS
ʟ́
  under the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.INESS
a
  inside the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
um -
PL.INTERESS
če -

  between the apples

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUPERLAT
t̄ -
iš
  onto the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUBLAT
L'ak
  towards the underneath of the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
l -
SG.ILL
a -
k
  into the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
l -
SG.INTERLAT
qɪak
  towards the middle of the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.CONTLAT
rak
  in the vicinity of the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUPERABL
t̄iš
  from over the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUBABL
L'aš
  from under the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
l -
SG.INABL
a -

  from within the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.INTERABL
qɪaŝ
  from between the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.CONTABL
raš
  from near the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUPERALL
t̄iši
  towards over the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUBALL
L'aši
  towards under the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.INALL
aši
  towards inside the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
PL.INTERALL
um -
če -
qɪaši
  towards between the apples

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.CONTALL
rši
  towards near the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUPERTRANS
t̄iXut
  along the region over the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUBTRANS
L'aXut
  along the region over the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.INTRANS
aXut
  along the region over the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.INTERTRANS
qIaXut
  along the region over the apple

Language: Archi
Source: Kibrik (1998:470-1)
  

Concept:
  


InallativeCase

Definition:  

InallativeCase expresses that something is moving toward the region that is inside the referent of the noun it marks. It has the meaning 'towards in(side)'.

Example:  

aɪnš -
apple-
lit
SG.SUPERESS
  on the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUBESS
ʟ́
  under the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.INESS
a
  inside the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
um -
PL.INTERESS
če -

  between the apples

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUPERLAT
t̄ -
iš
  onto the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUBLAT
L'ak
  towards the underneath of the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
l -
SG.ILL
a -
k
  into the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
l -
SG.INTERLAT
qɪak
  towards the middle of the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.CONTLAT
rak
  in the vicinity of the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUPERABL
t̄iš
  from over the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUBABL
L'aš
  from under the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
l -
SG.INABL
a -

  from within the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.INTERABL
qɪaŝ
  from between the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.CONTABL
raš
  from near the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUPERALL
t̄iši
  towards over the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUBALL
L'aši
  towards under the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.INALL
aši
  towards inside the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
PL.INTERALL
um -
če -
qɪaši
  towards between the apples

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.CONTALL
rši
  towards near the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUPERTRANS
t̄iXut
  along the region over the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUBTRANS
L'aXut
  along the region over the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.INTRANS
aXut
  along the region over the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.INTERTRANS
qIaXut
  along the region over the apple

Language: Archi
Source: Kibrik (1998:470-1)
  

Concept:
  


InceptiveAspect

Definition:  

InceptiveAspect, also called the ingressive, encodes the beginning portion of some event (Bybee 1985: 147, 149; Payne 1997: 240).


Comment:


The first example , with inceptive aspect, may be compared with the second example, which lacks inceptive aspect. In these examples, the inceptive is formed via affixation

Example:  

wetgawə -
speak-
ŋŋo -
INCEPT-
k
INF
  to begin speaking

wetgaw -
speak-
ək
INF
  to speak

Language: Chukot
Source: Muravyova (1998:537)
  

Concept:
  


Indicative

Definition:  

Indicative


Comment:


The first example above, illustrating Indicative mood, may be compared with the second, which illustrates Subjunctive mood. Here, the subjunctive is used to express doubt about a proposition.

Example:  

Creo
believe- 1.SG
que
that
aprende
learn- 3.SG.PRES.INDIC
  I believe that he is learning

Dudo
doubt- 1.SG
que
that
aprende
learn- 3.SG.PRES.INDIC
  I doubt that he is learning

Language: Spanish
Source: Palmer (2001:5),Klein (1975)
  

Concept:
  


IndirectEvidential

Definition:  

IndirectEvidential, also called reported, encodes the fact that the speaker came to believe the content of the expression from a source other than by experiencing the situation directly (Palmer 2001: 40).


Comment:


Palmer refers to the Direct Evidential as Sensory Evidential and the Indirect Evidential as the 'reported' or 'linguistic evidential'

Example:  

ŋindu -
you-
gara
NOM- SENSE
girambiyi
sick- PST
  One can see you were sick

ŋindu -
you-
dhan
NOM- LINGEVID
girambiyi
sick- PST
  You are said to have been sick

Language: Wangaaybuwan-ngiyambaa
Source: Palmer (2001:36),Donaldson (1980)
  

Concept:
  


InessiveCase

Definition:  

InessiveCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location within which another referent exists. It has the meaning of 'within' or 'inside' (Lyons 1968: 299; Gove, et al. 1966: 1156; Crystal 1985: 156). X in Y.

Example:  

aɪnš -
apple-
lit
SG.SUPERESS
  on the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUBESS
ʟ́
  under the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.INESS
a
  inside the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
um -
PL.INTERESS
če -

  between the apples

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUPERLAT
t̄ -
iš
  onto the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUBLAT
L'ak
  towards the underneath of the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
l -
SG.ILL
a -
k
  into the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
l -
SG.INTERLAT
qɪak
  towards the middle of the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.CONTLAT
rak
  in the vicinity of the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUPERABL
t̄iš
  from over the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUBABL
L'aš
  from under the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
l -
SG.INABL
a -

  from within the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.INTERABL
qɪaŝ
  from between the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.CONTABL
raš
  from near the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUPERALL
t̄iši
  towards over the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUBALL
L'aši
  towards under the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.INALL
aši
  towards inside the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
PL.INTERALL
um -
če -
qɪaši
  towards between the apples

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.CONTALL
rši
  towards near the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUPERTRANS
t̄iXut
  along the region over the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUBTRANS
L'aXut
  along the region over the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.INTRANS
aXut
  along the region over the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.INTERTRANS
qIaXut
  along the region over the apple

Language: Archi
Source: Kibrik (1998:470-1)
  

Concept:
  


InferenceEvidential

Definition:  

InferenceEvidential encodes the fact that the speaker came to believe the content of the expression through some kind of internal inference procedure, e.g., deduction, abduction, induction (Palmer 2001: 6-8).


Comment:


Palmer refers to the folklore evidential as a general knowledge evidential. The first example, a Folklore Evidential, may be compared to the hearsay evidential in the second example. The hearsay evidential in this language appears to subsume Second and Thirdhand Evidentials. The third example illustrates the Inference Evidential.

Example:  

čhéemul -
rain.fell-
ʔma
FOLK
  It rained (that's an established fact)

čhéemul -
rain.fell-
ʔdo
HSY
  It rained (I was told)

čhéemul -
rain.fell-
ʔka
INFEVID
  It rained (everything is wet)

Language: Pomo, Central
Source: Palmer (2001:6),Mithun (1999)
  

Concept:
  


InflectionalUnit

Definition:  

InflectionalUnit is the class of sublexical unit whose members designate such grammatical categories as tense, aspect, mood etc. The various forms of an InflectionalUnit plus the stem forms a grammatical paradigm and express a grammatical contrast that is obligatory for its stem's part of speech in some given grammatical context. An InflectionalUnit does not alter the partOfSpeech feature of the Root or Stem it attaches to. It is typically located farther from its Root than a derivational unit and produces a predictable, nonidiosyncratic change of meaning (Crystal 1980:184; Hartmann and Stork 1972:112; Mish et al. 1990:620; Bybee 1985:2, 99).

  

Concept:
  


InstrumentalCase

Definition:  

InstrumentalCase indicates that the referent of the noun it marks is the means of the accomplishment of the action expressed by the clause (Crystal 1980: 187; Hartmann and Stork 1972: 114; Mish et al. 1990: 627).


Comment:


Lake Miwok has ten case enclitics, illustrated in the examples. In the vocative example, the gram marked as VOC is specific to 'mother'. Other kinship terms have their own special vocative forms.

Example:  

kúku -
flea-
n
NOM
  A flea is sitting on your forehead

káac -
fish-
u
ACC
  He saw the fish

ʔóle
coyote
n
GEN
ṣúluk
skin
  coyote skin

ṭumáj -
stick-
tu
INST
  I hit him with a stick

réej
king
húukewa -
front-
m
ESS
  He's standing in front of the king

réej -
king-
to
ALL
ʔonínnuka
  He brought them to the king

má -
that-
m
ABL
  The cat came out of there

kaʔáppi -
father-
ni
COMIT
  I am walking with my father

ʔunú -
mother-
u
VOC
ʔujée
come.here
  Mother, come here!

Language: Miwok, Lake
Source: Mithun (1999:204-6),Callaghan (1963)
  

Concept:
  


InterablativeCase

Definition:  

InterablativeCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location from between which another referent is moving. It has the meaning 'from inbetween'.

Example:  

aɪnš -
apple-
lit
SG.SUPERESS
  on the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUBESS
ʟ́
  under the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.INESS
a
  inside the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
um -
PL.INTERESS
če -

  between the apples

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUPERLAT
t̄ -
iš
  onto the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUBLAT
L'ak
  towards the underneath of the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
l -
SG.ILL
a -
k
  into the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
l -
SG.INTERLAT
qɪak
  towards the middle of the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.CONTLAT
rak
  in the vicinity of the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUPERABL
t̄iš
  from over the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUBABL
L'aš
  from under the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
l -
SG.INABL
a -

  from within the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.INTERABL
qɪaŝ
  from between the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.CONTABL
raš
  from near the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUPERALL
t̄iši
  towards over the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUBALL
L'aši
  towards under the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.INALL
aši
  towards inside the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
PL.INTERALL
um -
če -
qɪaši
  towards between the apples

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.CONTALL
rši
  towards near the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUPERTRANS
t̄iXut
  along the region over the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUBTRANS
L'aXut
  along the region over the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.INTRANS
aXut
  along the region over the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.INTERTRANS
qIaXut
  along the region over the apple

Language: Archi
Source: Kibrik (1998:470-1)
  

Concept:
  


InterallativeCase

Definition:  

InterallativeCase expresses that something is moving toward the region that is in the middle of the referent of the noun it marks. It has the meaning 'towards the middle of'.

Example:  

aɪnš -
apple-
lit
SG.SUPERESS
  on the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUBESS
ʟ́
  under the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.INESS
a
  inside the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
um -
PL.INTERESS
če -

  between the apples

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUPERLAT
t̄ -
iš
  onto the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUBLAT
L'ak
  towards the underneath of the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
l -
SG.ILL
a -
k
  into the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
l -
SG.INTERLAT
qɪak
  towards the middle of the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.CONTLAT
rak
  in the vicinity of the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUPERABL
t̄iš
  from over the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUBABL
L'aš
  from under the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
l -
SG.INABL
a -

  from within the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.INTERABL
qɪaŝ
  from between the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.CONTABL
raš
  from near the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUPERALL
t̄iši
  towards over the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUBALL
L'aši
  towards under the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.INALL
aši
  towards inside the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
PL.INTERALL
um -
če -
qɪaši
  towards between the apples

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.CONTALL
rši
  towards near the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUPERTRANS
t̄iXut
  along the region over the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUBTRANS
L'aXut
  along the region over the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.INTRANS
aXut
  along the region over the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.INTERTRANS
qIaXut
  along the region over the apple

Language: Archi
Source: Kibrik (1998:470-1)
  

Concept:
  


InteressiveCase

Definition:  

InteressiveCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location between which another referent exists. It has the meaning of 'between'.

Example:  

aɪnš -
apple-
lit
SG.SUPERESS
  on the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUBESS
ʟ́
  under the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.INESS
a
  inside the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
um -
PL.INTERESS
če -

  between the apples

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUPERLAT
t̄ -
iš
  onto the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUBLAT
L'ak
  towards the underneath of the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
l -
SG.ILL
a -
k
  into the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
l -
SG.INTERLAT
qɪak
  towards the middle of the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.CONTLAT
rak
  in the vicinity of the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUPERABL
t̄iš
  from over the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUBABL
L'aš
  from under the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
l -
SG.INABL
a -

  from within the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.INTERABL
qɪaŝ
  from between the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.CONTABL
raš
  from near the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUPERALL
t̄iši
  towards over the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUBALL
L'aši
  towards under the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.INALL
aši
  towards inside the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
PL.INTERALL
um -
če -
qɪaši
  towards between the apples

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.CONTALL
rši
  towards near the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUPERTRANS
t̄iXut
  along the region over the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUBTRANS
L'aXut
  along the region over the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.INTRANS
aXut
  along the region over the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.INTERTRANS
qIaXut
  along the region over the apple

Language: Archi
Source: Kibrik (1998:470-1)
  

Concept:
  


InterlativeCase

Definition:  

InterlativeCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location between which another referent is moving. It has the meaning 'to the middle of'.

Example:  

aɪnš -
apple-
lit
SG.SUPERESS
  on the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUBESS
ʟ́
  under the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.INESS
a
  inside the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
um -
PL.INTERESS
če -

  between the apples

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUPERLAT
t̄ -
iš
  onto the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUBLAT
L'ak
  towards the underneath of the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
l -
SG.ILL
a -
k
  into the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
l -
SG.INTERLAT
qɪak
  towards the middle of the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.CONTLAT
rak
  in the vicinity of the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUPERABL
t̄iš
  from over the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUBABL
L'aš
  from under the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
l -
SG.INABL
a -

  from within the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.INTERABL
qɪaŝ
  from between the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.CONTABL
raš
  from near the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUPERALL
t̄iši
  towards over the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUBALL
L'aši
  towards under the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.INALL
aši
  towards inside the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
PL.INTERALL
um -
če -
qɪaši
  towards between the apples

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.CONTALL
rši
  towards near the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUPERTRANS
t̄iXut
  along the region over the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUBTRANS
L'aXut
  along the region over the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.INTRANS
aXut
  along the region over the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.INTERTRANS
qIaXut
  along the region over the apple

Language: Archi
Source: Kibrik (1998:470-1)
  

Concept:
  


InterminativeCase

Definition:  

'into in(side of)'.

  

Concept:
  


InternalAttribute

Definition:  

Any Attribute of an Entity that is an internal property of the Entity, e.g. its shape, its color, its fragility, etc.

  

Concept:
  


InterterminativeCase

Definition:  

InterterminativeCase expresses the notion of something moving into the middle of the referent of the noun it marks, but not through it. It has the meaning 'into the middle of'.

  

Concept:
  


IntertranslativeCase

Definition:  

IntertranslativeCase expresses the notion of something moving along a trajectory between the referent of the noun it marks. It has the meaning 'along the in between'.

Example:  

aɪnš -
apple-
lit
SG.SUPERESS
  on the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUBESS
ʟ́
  under the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.INESS
a
  inside the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
um -
PL.INTERESS
če -

  between the apples

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUPERLAT
t̄ -
iš
  onto the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUBLAT
L'ak
  towards the underneath of the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
l -
SG.ILL
a -
k
  into the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
l -
SG.INTERLAT
qɪak
  towards the middle of the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.CONTLAT
rak
  in the vicinity of the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUPERABL
t̄iš
  from over the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUBABL
L'aš
  from under the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
l -
SG.INABL
a -

  from within the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.INTERABL
qɪaŝ
  from between the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.CONTABL
raš
  from near the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUPERALL
t̄iši
  towards over the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUBALL
L'aši
  towards under the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.INALL
aši
  towards inside the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
PL.INTERALL
um -
če -
qɪaši
  towards between the apples

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.CONTALL
rši
  towards near the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUPERTRANS
t̄iXut
  along the region over the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUBTRANS
L'aXut
  along the region over the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.INTRANS
aXut
  along the region over the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.INTERTRANS
qIaXut
  along the region over the apple

Language: Archi
Source: Kibrik (1998:470-1)
  

Concept:
  


IntranslativeCase

Definition:  

IntranslativeCase expresses the notion of something moving through the referent of the noun it marks. It has the meaning 'along through'.

Example:  

aɪnš -
apple-
lit
SG.SUPERESS
  on the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUBESS
ʟ́
  under the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.INESS
a
  inside the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
um -
PL.INTERESS
če -

  between the apples

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUPERLAT
t̄ -
iš
  onto the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUBLAT
L'ak
  towards the underneath of the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
l -
SG.ILL
a -
k
  into the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
l -
SG.INTERLAT
qɪak
  towards the middle of the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.CONTLAT
rak
  in the vicinity of the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUPERABL
t̄iš
  from over the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUBABL
L'aš
  from under the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
l -
SG.INABL
a -

  from within the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.INTERABL
qɪaŝ
  from between the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.CONTABL
raš
  from near the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUPERALL
t̄iši
  towards over the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUBALL
L'aši
  towards under the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.INALL
aši
  towards inside the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
PL.INTERALL
um -
če -
qɪaši
  towards between the apples

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.CONTALL
rši
  towards near the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUPERTRANS
t̄iXut
  along the region over the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.SUBTRANS
L'aXut
  along the region over the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.INTRANS
aXut
  along the region over the apple

aɪnš -
apple-
li -
SG.INTERTRANS
qIaXut
  along the region over the apple

Language: Archi
Source: Kibrik (1998:470-1)
  

Concept:
  


Irrealis

Definition:  

Irrealis


Comment:


The first example, illustrating Realis mood, may be compared with the second, which illustrates Irrealis mood.

Example:  

ho
pig
bu -
SIM-
busal -
run.out-
en
3.SG.DS.REALIS
age
3.PL
qo -
hit-
in
3PL.REMPST
  They killed the pig as it ran out.

ho
pig
bu -
SIM-
busal -
run.out-
eb
3.SG.DS.IRREAL
age
3.PL
qo -
hit-
qag -
3.PL.FUT
an
  They will kill the pig as it runs out

Language: Amele
Source: Palmer (2001:5),Roberts (1990)
  

Concept:
  


IterativeAspect

Definition:  

IterativeAspect, also called repetitives, encodes a number of events of the same type that are repeated on a particular occasion. The time interval which is relevant to the iterative is relatively shorter than in the case of the habitual (Bybee 1985: 150; Bybee, Perkins and Pagliuca 1994: 127).

Example:  

é -
3-
du -
eat-
a
HAB
mɔ́li
rice
  He/she eats rice habitually

é -
3-
ga -
ITR-
du
eat
mɔ́li
rice
  He/She repeatedly ate rice

Language: Ewe
Source: Payne (1997:242)
  

Concept:
  


LativeCase

Definition:  

LativeCase expresses 'motion up to the location of,' or 'as far as' the referent of the noun it marks (Pei and Gaynor 1954: 121; Gove, et al. 1966: 1277).

Example:  

Malika
Malika
loomax
mountain- LAT
hwal
up
‘a
and
jeelara
GENDER- ascend- WITNESSEDPST
oahwa
down
‘a
and
joessara
GENDER- descend- WITNESSEDPST
  Malika climbed up and down the mountain

Language: Chechen
Source: Good (2003:23)
  

Concept:
  


LexicalUnit

Definition:  

LexicalUnit is the class of morphosyntactic units which are expressed as individual units, or words, in a language. They are constituents at the Phrase level and above. They are sometimes identifiable according to such criteria as: (1) they are the minimal possible units in a reply; (2) their phonological expressions have features such as a regular stress pattern, and phonological changes conditioned by or blocked at Word boundaries; (3) they are the largest units resistant to insertion of new constituents within their boundaries; or (4) they are the smallest constituents that can be moved within a Sentence without making the Sentence ungrammatical (Hartmann and Stork 1972: 256; Crystal 1980: 168, 383, 384; Cruse 1986: 3536; Mish et al. 1990: 1358; Pike and Pike 1982: 462).

  

Concept:
  


LinguisticUnit

Definition:  

The class of entities is meant to be a container for mental linguistic units of all kinds, including discourse, morphosyntactic, phonological and semantic.

  

Concept:
  


List

Definition:  

Every List is a particular ordered n-tuple of items. Generally speaking, Lists are created by means of the ListFn Function, which takes any number of items as arguments and returns a List with the items in the same order. Anything, including other Lists, may be an item in a List. Note too that Lists are extensional - two lists that have the same items in the same order are identical. Note too that a List may contain no items. In that case, the List is the NullList.

  

Concept:
  


MainClause

Definition:  

A main clause is an independent clause that can stand on its own as a sentence. If a sentence contains any embedded clauses, the main clause is understood as the matrix plus the embedded clauses. In the sentence 'John thinks that Mary is sick', 'John thinks that Mary is sick' is the main clause (Crystal 2001: 231).

  

Concept:
  


MalefactiveCase

Definition:  

Opposite of BenefactiveCase; used when the marked noun is negatively affected in the clause.

  

Concept:
  


MentalAbilitive

Definition:  

MentalAbilitive encodes an internal condition of ability, whereby the agent has the mental capacity to perform some action (Bybee, Perkins, and Pagliuca 1994: 192; Palmer 2001: 77)


Comment:


The first two Lisu examples may be interpreted as General Abilitive Mood. The third illustrates Mental Abilitive Mood. The fourth illustrates Physical Abilitive Mood.

Example:  

ása
Asa
nya
TOP
ami
field
khwa
hoe
tyè -
freedom.taboo-

DEC
  It is not taboo for Asa to hoe fields

ása
Asa
nya
TOP
ami
field
khwa
hoe
bala -
no.hindrance-

DEC
  Asa is free to hoe fields

ása
Asa
nya
TOP
ami
field
khwa
hoe
kwú -
mentally.able-

DEC
  Asa is able (knows how) to hoe fields

ása
Asa
nya
TOP
ami
field
khwa
hoe
kwú -
able-

DEC
  Asa is physically able to hoe fields

Language: Lisu
Source: Palmer (2001:77),Hope (1974)
  

Concept:
  


ModalityValue

Definition:  

ModalityValue is the class of values that may be associated with the feature instance 'modality'. ModalityValue is the class of all modality types found in language. Modality is the encoding of the speaker's attitudes and opinions about the expressed proposition. Modality is concerned with the encoding of the truth status of the expressed proposition as well as the propositional attitudes such as fears, wants and desires. Evidentiality is also closely related and is often part of the formal mood system of a language. A formal distinction is often made between modal and mood systems in the grammar. However, here they are conflated as Modality (Bybee, Perkins, and Pagliuca 1994: 176; Palmer 2001: 1).

  

Concept:
  


MorphoSyntacticFeatureValue

Definition:  

MorphoSyntacticFeatureValue is the class of values that may be associated with instances of MorphoSyntacticFeature. In a FeatureSystem, these dictate the formal properties of the grammar and may or may not be true semantically. A set of FeatureValues forms an integral part of a language's FeatureSystem (Pollard and Sag 1994; Maxwell, Simons, and Hayashi 2001).

  

Concept:
  


MorphoSyntacticUnit

Definition:  

The class of entities which may be construed as the elements of a language. Such units are meant to serve as ontological containers for mental objects or representations. In some theories, these may correspond to the notion of a morphemes and constructions. In a feature system, these elements carry MorphoSyntacticFeatures.

  

Concept:
  


NominalParticle

Definition:  

A nominal particle is a member of a closed class of particles that co-occur with nouns.

  

Concept:
  


Nominalization

Definition:  

A nominal is a partOfSpeech whose members differ grammatically from a substantive but which functions as one (Crystal 1997:260; Mish et al. 1990:801).

  

Concept:
  


NominativeCase

Definition:  

NominativeCase identifies clause subjects in nominative-accusative languages. It is usually the unmarked case. Nouns used in isolation often have this case (Crystal 1980: 242; Pei and Gaynor 1954: 147; Mish et al. 1990: 801; Hartmann and Stork 1972: 224).


Comment:


Here the nominative is zero-marked. Also, in this language nonspecific objects do not take the accusative case.

Example:  

Hasan
Hasan- NOM
öküz -
ox-
ü
ACC
aldi
buy- PST.3.SG
  Hasan bought the ox

Müdür
director- NOM
Hasan -
Hasan-
a
DAT
mektu -
letter-
u
ACC
göster -
show-
di
PST
  The director showed the letter to Hasan

Language: Turkish
Source: Blake (2001:87, 119),Comrie (1989:132-6, 175-6),Comrie (1976)
  

Concept:
  


NonFutureTense

Definition:  

NonFutureTense locates the situation in question at or before the moment of utterance, and contrasts with a FutureTense (Comrie 1985: 49).


Comment:


These examples illustrate a reportedly binary, future/non-future tense system. Interlinear glosses are constructed here based on Haiman's discussion of verb stem alternations and their structures. Haiman reports that in Hua, Non-future tense is indicated by the lack of an auxiliary. Future tense is expressed with a variety of auxiliaries. The first example illustrates the Simple Indicative Future. The second is a Non-future tense with Interrogative Mood.

Example:  

hu -
do-
gu -
do-
e
FUT- IND.SG
  I will do

hu -
do-
ve
1- INTERROGATIVE.SG
  Did I do?

Language: Yagaria
Source: Haiman (1980:47, 140-1)
  

Concept:
  


NonGrammaticalCase

Definition:  

Subsumes the Cases that are assigned by the verb. These Cases often correspond to the SemanticRoles in the Sentence.

  

Concept:
  


NonPastTense

Definition:  

NonPastTense locates the situation in question at or after the moment of utterance, and contrasts with a past tense (Comrie 1985:48-49).


Comment:


Agaw reportedly has a past/non-past binary tense system. Hetzron reports that for the main forms of Agaw verbs, there are combinations of two tenses and two aspects. In Hetzron's description, the two tenses are called Imperfect (used for present and future expressions) and Perfect (for past expressions). The two aspects are Definite and Indefinite. The first example is what he calls the Imperfect Definite (with a Nonpast tense). The second is the Imperfect Indefinite (also Nonpast). The third example is the Perfect Definite (a Past). The fourth is the Perfect Indefinite (also Past). The Imperfect Indefinite and the Perfect Definite are the most frequent combinations.

Example:  

desáwi
  He will study (certain)

desé
  He is studying/He will study (uncertain)

desγʷà
  He studied (certain)

desa
  He studied (and still is)/He studied (uncertain)

Language: Agaw, Western
Source: Hetzron (1969:12-13)
  

Concept:
  


NonProgressiveAspect

Definition:  

NonProgressiveAspect is essentially the opposite of ProgressiveAspect; it encodes a single event as a state or non-process. It is a controversial category, though there may be languages in which it contrasts witht he ProgressiveAspect (Comrie 1976: 32-35; Bybee, Perkins and Pagliuca 1994: 137-139).


Comment:


In English, the grammatically progressive form in the first of the examples and the nonprogressive form in the second example are not interchangeable. This is Comrie's motivation for having the category nonprogressive. By contrast, both of the Spanish examples may be understood to have progressive aspect, despite their grammatical differences.

Example:  

John
John
is
3.SG- be
sing -
sing-
ing
PROG
  John is sing-ing

John
John
sing -
sing-
s
3.SG
  John sing-s

Juan
John
está
3.SG- be
cant -
sing-
ando
PROG
  John is (in the process of) singing

Juan
John
cant -
sing-
a
3.SG
  John is (in the process of) singing or John (habitually) sings

Language: Spanish
Source: Comrie (1976:33)
  

Concept:
  


NonRecentPastTense

Definition:  

NonRecentPastTense locates the situation in question before the range of a contrasting recent past tense. This category must be defined relative to a RecentPastTense.

  

Concept:
  


NonRemotePastTense

Definition:  

NonRemotePastTense locates the situation in question not more than a few days ago, in contrast to a RemotePastTense. This category must be defined relative to a RemotePastTense.

  

Concept:
  


NonSpatialCase

Definition:  

This subsumes cases which are non-grammatical and non-spatial.

  

Concept:
  


NonVisualEvidential

Definition:  

NonVisualEvidential encodes the fact that the speaker came to believe the content of the expression directly in a way other than through visual experience; they heard it, smelled it, tasted it, ect. (Palmer 2001: 36, 57).


Comment:


The first example, with a visual evidential, may be compared to the second, with a nonvisual evidential.

Example:  

díiga
soccer
apé -
play-
wi
3.SG.PST- VIS
  He played soccer (I saw him play)

díiga
soccer
apé -
play-
ti
3.SG.PST- NONVIS
  He played soccer (I heard the game and him, but I didn't see it or him)

Language: Tuyuca
Source: Palmer (2001:36),Barnes (1984),Malone (1988)
  

Concept:
  


Noun

Definition:  

A noun is a broad classification of parts of speech which include substantives and nominals (Crystal 1997:371; Mish et al. 1990:1176).

  

Concept:
  


NumberValue

Definition:  

NumberValue is the class of values that may be associated with the feature instance 'number'. NumberValue is the class of all grammatical number types found in language. Number is a grammatical category often found on nouns, pronouns, and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions--such as 'one' or 'more than one'. The count distinctions typically, but not always, correspond to the actual count of the referents of the marked noun or Pronoun (Crystal 1980: 245; Hartmann and Stork 1972: 155; Mish et al. 1990: 811).

  

Concept:
  


Numeral

Definition:  

A numeral is a partOfSpeech whose members function most typically as adjectives or pronouns and express a number, or relation to the number, such as one of the following: quantity, sequence, frequency, fraction (Hartmann and Stork 1972:155; Pei and Gaynor 1954:149).

  

Concept:
  


Object

Definition:  

Corresponds roughly to the class of ordinary objects. Examples include normal physical objects, geographical regions, and locations of Processes, the complement of Objects in the Physical class. In a 4D ontology, an Object is something whose spatiotemporal extent is thought of as dividing into spatial parts roughly parallel to the time-axis.

  

Concept:
  


Obligative

Definition:  

Obligative is a very common modal category and encodes that the subject is required to perform the action expressed by the predicate (Bybee, Perkins, and Pagliuca 1994: 177; Palmer 2001: 71).


Comment:


Palmer notes that some grammars may refer to the Obligative Mood as 'Purposive'. The first example expressing Obligative Mood may be compared with the second example illustrating Permissive Mood.

Example:  

ása
Asa
nya
TOP
ami
field
khwa
hoe
wa̪ -
OBLIG-
wa̪
DEC
  It is obligatory for Asa to hoe fields

ása
Asa
nya
TOP
ami
field
khwa
hoe
da̪ -
PERMISSIVE-

DEC
  It is acceptable for Asa to hoe fields

Language: Lisu
Source: Palmer (2001:72),Hope (1974)
  

Concept:
  


Optative

Definition:  

Optative encodes that the speaker wishes or hopes that the expressed proposition be the case (Bybee, Perkins, and Pagliuca 1994: 179; Palmer 2001: 204).


Comment:


Palmer notes that the Optative or 'wishing' mood tends to be grammaticalized in subjunctive forms. See the Cheyenne example for an illustration of distinct subjunctive and optative forms.

Example:  

njuutaa
be.long- 2.SG.SUBJ
balɗe
in.days
  May you live long!

Language: Fuuta Jalon
Source: Palmer (2001:132),Arnott (1970)
  

Concept:
  


OrthAffix

Definition:  

An OrthAffix is a OrthPart that is joined before, after, around, or within an OrthRoot or OrthStem (Crystal 1980: 17; Hartmann and Stork 1972: 6; Mish et al. 1990: 62).

  

Concept:
  


OrthCircumfix

Definition:  

An OrthCircumfix is an OrthAffix that is attached around a OrthRoot or OrthStem

  

Concept:
  


OrthCompound

Definition:  

An OrthCompound is an expression made up of two or more OrthRoots.

  

Concept:
  


OrthInfix

Definition:  

An OrthInfix is an OrthAffix that is inserted within a OrthRoot (Hartmann and Stork 1972: 111).

  

Concept:
  


OrthPart

Definition:  

OrthPart is the subclass of=20written expressions whose members are not orthographically independent, that is, they cannot stand alone as words but compose to form words. Note that an OrthPart is not the same as a single character. Although, some OrthParts are characters.

  

Concept:
  


OrthPhrase

Definition:  

An OrthPhrase realizes a PhraseUnit.

  

Concept:
  


OrthPrefix

Definition:  

An OrthPrefix is an OrthAffix that is joined before a OrthRoot or OrthStem (Crystal 1980: 281; Hartmann and Stork 1972: 182; Mish et al. 1990: 927).

  

Concept:
  


OrthRoot

Definition:  

Some expression is an OrthRoot if it realizes a LinguisticUnit which is either a Bound or FreeRoot.

  

Concept:
  


OrthStem

Definition:  

An OrthStem realizes either a Boundor FreeStem.

  

Concept:
  


OrthSuffix

Definition:  

A OrthSuffix is an OrthAffix that is attached to the end of a OrthRoot or OrthStem (Crystal 1980: 340; Hartmann and Stork 1972: 226; Mish et al. 1990: 1179).

  

Concept:
  


OrthWord

Definition:  

An OrthWord is the fundamental unit of an orthography, usually set off by white space.

  

Concept:
  


PartOfSpeechValue

Definition:  

PartOfSpeechValue is the value associated with partOfSpeech feature. PartOfSpeechValue is the class of all lexical types found in language. While a particular theory may not utilize the notion part of speech, it is useful as part of a FeatureSystem. The set of part of speech values for a particular language can be described based on how words behave in the syntax (Payne 1997: 33; Maxwell, Simons, and Hayashi 2001).

  

Concept:
  


Particle

Definition:  

A particle is a partOfSpeech whose members do not belong to one of the main classes of words, is invariable, and typically has grammatical or pragmatic meaning.

  

Concept:
  


PartitiveCase

Definition:  

PartitiveCase expresses the partial nature of the referent of the noun it marks, as opposed to expressing the whole unit or class of which the referent is a part. This case may be found in items such as the following: existential clauses, nouns that are accompanied by numerals or units of measure, or predications of material from which something is made. It often has a meaning similar to the English word 'some' (Pei and Gaynor 1954: 161; Richards, Platt, and Weber 1985: 208; Quirk, et al. 1985: 249; Gove, et al. 1966: 1648; Sebeok 1946: 1214).


Comment:


Here the suffix marked as PART is the same suffix used to mark the Ablative case in Hungarian.

Example:  

evett
ate- 3.SG
a
the
sütemény -
pastry-
ből
PART
  S/he ate some of the pastry

Language: Hungarian
Source: Moravcsik (1978:261)
  

Concept:
  


PerfectAspect

Definition:  

PerfectAspect indicates that the event is relevant in relation to some reference time. Thus, it encodes both a temporal and a discourse relation between two time points. It can contrast with the perfective (Comrie 1976: 52-65; Give001: 296).


Comment:


Comrie seems to suggest that Perfect should be a distinct aspectual category because in some cases an action is completed, but the state of affairs that obtains is ongoing.

Example:  

I
1.SG.NOM
have
1.SG.PERFECT
lost
lose- PST
my
1SG.POSS
penknife
penknife
  I have lost my penknife (and it is still lost)

Language: English
Source: Comrie (1976:52)
  

Concept:
  


PerfectiveAspect

Definition:  

PerfectiveAspect, sometimes called the aorists, encodes the totality of some event, that is, the event viewed from outside, in its entirety as a whole. Because perfectives encode the entire event, the event is necessarily complete. A perfective may be used to encode a several events when they are to be viewed as a whole (Comrie 1976: 12, 18; Payne 1997: 239; Dahl 1999: 33)


Comment:


The first of the examples illustrates imperfective aspect and may be compared with the second example, which illustrates perfective aspect.

Example:  

to
he
tikDe
there
jat
going- IMPERF
hota
was
  he was going there (he was on the way)

to
he
tikDe
there
gela
gone- PERFECTIVE
hota
was
  he went there

Language: Marathi
Source: Bhat (1999:46),Bernsten and Nimbkar (1982)
  

Concept:
  


PerlativeCase

Definition:  

PerlativeCase expresses that something moved 'through','across', or 'along' the referent of the noun that is marked (Blake 1998: 38, 203).

  

Concept:
  


Permissive

Definition:  

Permissive encodes that the subject has permission to perform the action expressed by the predicate (Palmer 2001: 10, 71).


Comment:


Palmer notes that some grammars may refer to the Obligative Mood as 'Purposive'. The first example expressing Obligative Mood may be compared with the second example illustrating Permissive Mood.

Example:  

ása
Asa
nya
TOP
ami
field
khwa
hoe
wa̪ -
OBLIG-
wa̪
DEC
  It is obligatory for Asa to hoe fields

ása
Asa
nya
TOP
ami
field
khwa
hoe
da̪ -
PERMISSIVE-

DEC
  It is acceptable for Asa to hoe fields

Language: Lisu
Source: Palmer (2001:72),Hope (1974)
  

Concept:
  


PermutativeCase

Definition:  

PermutativeCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks takes part in some event instead of the referent of some other noun; it means roughly ' instead of'; found in Archi (Kibrik 1998: 469).

Example:  

  Send your own son in place of my son

Language: Archi
Source: Kibrik (1998:469)
  

Concept:
  


PersonValue

Definition:  

PersonValue is the class of values that may be associated with the feature instance 'person'. PersonValue is the class of all grammatical person types found in language. Person indicates the number and nature of the participants in a situation. Usually a three-way contrast is found: first, second, and third person. Other formal distinctions in languages include: inclusive/exlusive, honorific/intimate, and male/female (Crystal 1997: 285).

  

Concept:
  


PersonalPronoun

Definition:  

A personal pronoun is a pronoun that expresses a distinction of person deixis (Mish et al. 1990:878).

  

Concept:
  


PhaseAspect

Definition:  

PhaseAspect encodes some portion of the event, the initial, final or core part (Bickel 1997: 116; Sasse 2002).

  

Concept:
  


PhraseUnit

Definition:  

PhraseUnit

  

Concept:
  


Physical

Definition:  

An entity that has a location in space-time. Note that locations are themselves understood to have a location in space-time.

  

Concept:
  


PhysicalAbilitive

Definition:  

PhysicalAbilitive encodes an internal condition of ability, whereby the agent has the physical capacity to perform some action (Bybee, Perkins, and Pagliuca 1994: 192; Palmer 2001: 77).


Comment:


The first two Lisu examples may be interpreted as General Abilitive Mood. The third illustrates Mental Abilitive Mood. The fourth illustrates Physical Abilitive Mood.

Example:  

ása
Asa
nya
TOP
ami
field
khwa
hoe
tyè -
freedom.taboo-

DEC
  It is not taboo for Asa to hoe fields

ása
Asa
nya
TOP
ami
field
khwa
hoe
bala -
no.hindrance-

DEC
  Asa is free to hoe fields

ása
Asa
nya
TOP
ami
field
khwa
hoe
kwú -
mentally.able-

DEC
  Asa is able (knows how) to hoe fields

ása
Asa
nya
TOP
ami
field
khwa
hoe
kwú -
able-

DEC
  Asa is physically able to hoe fields

Language: Lisu
Source: Palmer (2001:77),Hope (1974)
  

Concept:
  


PolarityValue

Definition:  

PolarityValue is the class of values that may be associated with the feature instance 'polarity'. PolarityValue is the class of all polarity types found in language.

  

Concept:
  


PositionalCase

Definition:  

Represents a static spatial relation between two Objects.

  

Concept:
  


PossessedCase

Definition:  

PossessedCase is used to mark the noun whose referent is possessed by the referent of another noun.

Example:  

súy̓ati
boy
g -
3.POSSD-
'm̓ásdi̓i
hand
  the boy's hand

s -
1.POSSD-
'a̓masdi̓i
hand
  my hand

Language: Keres, Western
Source: Mithun (1999:250),Miller (1965:148)
  

Concept:
  


PossessorCase

Definition:  

PossessorCase is used to mark the noun whose referent is the possessor of the referent of another noun (Blake 1998: 149).

Example:  

wóle -
whiteman-
k̓i
POSSV
láwa -
flour-
ni
INST
  with whiteman's flour

Language: Maidu, Northwest
Source: Mithun (1999:249),Shipley (1964:27, 31)
  

Concept:
  


PostHodiernalFutureTense

Definition:  

PostHodiernalFutureTense locates the situation in question after the span that is culturally defined as 'today' (Bybee, Perkins, and Pagliuca 1994: 247).

  

Concept:
  


PreHesternalPastTense

Definition:  

PreHesternalPastTense locates the situation in question before that of an opposing hesternal past tense. This category must be defined relative to a HesternalPastTense (Bybee, Perkins, Pagliuca 1994: 98).

  

Concept:
  


PreHodiernalPastTense

Definition:  

PreHodiernalPastTense locates the situation in question before that of a contrasting HodiernalPastTense. This category must be defined relative to a HodiernalPastTense (Bybee, Perkins, Pagliuca 1994: 98).


Comment:


Bybee, et al divide past tense systems into those that refer to daily cycles and those that do not. Typically, languages with past tenses that refer to a daily cycle will have tense that specifies 'today' and all others will refer to spans of time prior to 'today' (Bybee, et al 1994:99, Dahl 1985:125; Comrie 1985:93). Cocama is such a language. The examples above illustrate its three-way system of remoteness distinctions in the past tense.

Example:  

Ritama -
town-
ca
to
tutsu -
go-
tsuri
REMPST
  I went to town a long time ago

Ritama -
town-
ca
to
tutsu -
go-
icuá
PREHODPST
  I went to town yesterday/a few days ago

Ritama -
town-
ca
to
tuts -
go-
ui
HODPST
  I went to town today

Language: Cocama-cocamilla
Source: Bybee, Perkins, and Pagliuca (1994:98-99),Faust (1978)
  

Concept:
  


ProForm

Definition:  

A ProForm is a partOfSpeech whose members usually substitute for other constituents, including phrases, clauses, or sentences, and whose meaning is recoverable from the linguistic or extralinguistic context (Schachter 1985:24-25; Crystal 1997:310).

  

Concept:
  


Process

Definition:  

Intuitively, the class of things that happen and have temporal parts or stages. Examples include extended events like a football match or a race, actions like Searching and Reading, and biological processes. The formal definition is: anything that lasts for a time but is not an Object. Note that a Process may have participants 'inside' it which are Objects, such as the players in a football match. In a 4D ontology, a Process is something whose spatiotemporal extent is thought of as dividing into temporal stages roughly perpendicular to the time-axis.

  

Concept:
  


Proclitic

Definition:  

A proclitic is a clitic that precedes the lexical unit to which it is phonologically joined (Crystal 1980:64; Hartmann and Stork 1972:185; Pei and Gaynor 1954:176; Mish et al. 1990:938).

  

Concept:
  


ProgressiveAspect

Definition:  

ProgressiveAspect, also called the continuative or the durative, encodes a single event as an ongoing process. Thus, states cannot generally be encoded with the progressive (Comrie 1976: 32-35; Bybee, Perkins and Pagliuca 1994: 127-139; Payne 1997: 240).


Comment:


The Progressive stem in the first example may be compared to the Transitional stem in the second. The Progressive is used for incomplete or ongoing actions or states, actions continued as one moves along, and inchoatives. The Transitional is used to indicate entrance into a state.

Example:  

ghe -
PRFV-
le -
CL-
nustl
swell- PROG
  It is swelling up

Ø -
PRFV-
le -
CL-
noots
swell- TRANSITIONAL
  It swelled up

Language: Koyukon
Source: Mithun (1999:169),Axelrod (1993)
  

Concept:
  


Pronoun

Definition:  

A Pronoun is a proForm which functions like a noun and substitutes for a noun or noun phrase (Crystal 1997:312; Mish et al. 1990:942).

  

Concept:
  


ProprietiveCase

Definition:  

This case expresses the presence of the referent of the noun it marks. It has the meaning of the English verb 'have' (Blake 1994: 156).


Comment:


Blake reports that this case appears in lexicalized formations in many Australian languages.

Example:  

putu -
stomach-
yan
PROP
  pregnant

Language: Kalkutung
Source: Blake (2001:154)
  

Concept:
  


Quantifier

Definition:  

A quantifier is a determiner that expresses a referent's definite or indefinite number or amount. A quantifier functions as a modifier of a noun, or a pronoun (Crystal 1997:317; Mish et al. 1990:963).

  

Concept:
  


QuantitativeAspect

Definition:  

QuantitativeAspect refers to the cardinality of the event which is represented by the predicate (de Groot 1995; Dahl 1999: 31; Sasse 2002: 227).

  

Concept:
  


Realis

Definition:  

Realis


Comment:


The first example, illustrating Realis mood, may be compared with the second, which illustrates Irrealis mood.

Example:  

ho
pig
bu -
SIM-
busal -
run.out-
en
3.SG.DS.REALIS
age
3.PL
qo -
hit-
in
3PL.REMPST
  They killed the pig as it ran out.

ho
pig
bu -
SIM-
busal -
run.out-
eb
3.SG.DS.IRREAL
age
3.PL
qo -
hit-
qag -
3.PL.FUT
an
  They will kill the pig as it runs out

Language: Amele
Source: Palmer (2001:5),Roberts (1990)
  

Concept:
  


RecentPastTense

Definition:  

RecentPastTense locates the situation in question prior to the present moment, but by culturally and situationally defined criteria, usually within the span ranging from yesterday to a week or a few months previous (Comrie 1985:87; Dahl 1985:121-122).


Comment:


Bybee, et al indicate that Inuit manifests a 2-way past distinction that makes no reference to daily cycles. The two subdivisions they reference are given in the second and third examples. The first example, with the affix glossed as PERF, illustrates a past that Fortescue claims is often understood as a general experiential past without any specified time. This might be analyzed as a Simple Past.

Example:  

Nuum -
Nuuk-
miis -
be.in-
sima -
PERF-
vunga
1.S.INDIC
  I have been to Nuuk

tuqu -
die-
riikatap -
REMPST-
puq
3.SG.INDIC
  He died long ago

niri -
eat-
qqammir -
RECPST-
punga
1.SG.INDIC
  I ate recently

Language: Inuktitut, Eastern Canadian
Source: Bybee, Perkins, and Pagliuca (1994:99),Fortescue (1984:272-3)
  

Concept:
  


Relation

Definition:  

The Class of relations. There are three kinds of Relation: Predicate, Function, and List. Predicates and Functions both denote sets of ordered n-tuples. The difference between these two Classes is that Predicates cover formula-forming operators, while Functions cover term-forming operators. A List, on the other hand, is a particular ordered n-tuple.

  

Concept:
  


RelativeFutureTense

Definition:  

RelativeFutureTense locates the situation in question after a contextually determined temporal reference point, regardless of the latter's relation to the moment of utterance.


Comment:


Mithun cites this story as a case where the temporal point of reference is not the moment of utterance, but the 'narrative present', indicated by the absence of tense marking. What Mithun refers to as 'narrative present' may be considered a Relative Present. In this example, the narrative present is a moment that actually occurred in the past during an 1824 revolt. The Future and Past markings that occur later in the story are understood to be future and past relative to the narrative present, not the moment of the story-telling. In this story, the markers for Relative Future and Relative Past do not appear to differ from markers used in Absolute tense constructions. The point of reference has simply shifted.

Example:  

isam - saʔ - kuti
hiheʔl̓amnesus - waš
kanuʔam - saʔ - č̓amin
mehusalaxsum - waš
  what they had done (PAST) to him

isam - saʔ - kuti
hiheʔl̓amnesus - waš
kanuʔam - saʔ - č̓amin
mehusalaxsum - waš
  They would know (FUTURE)

isam - saʔ - kuti
hiheʔl̓amnesus - waš
kanuʔam - saʔ - č̓amin
mehusalaxsum - waš
  that a person had lied (PAST) badly

isam - saʔ - kuti
hiheʔl̓amnesus - waš
kanuʔam - saʔ - č̓amin
mehusalaxsum - waš
  He was trembling

isam - saʔ - kuti
hiheʔl̓amnesus - waš
kanuʔam - saʔ - č̓amin
mehusalaxsum - waš
  from what he had suffered (PAST)

isam - saʔ - kuti
hiheʔl̓amnesus - waš
kanuʔam - saʔ - č̓amin
mehusalaxsum - waš
  They laid him at the door of the Mission (NO TENSE MARKER)

isam - saʔ - kuti
hiheʔl̓amnesus - waš
kanuʔam - saʔ - č̓amin
mehusalaxsum - waš
  so that the people would see (FUTURE)

Language: Chumash
Source: Mithun (1999:160-2)
  

Concept:
  


RelativeNonFutureTense

Definition:  

RelativeNonFutureTense locates the situation in question simultaneous to, or before, a contextually determined temporal reference point, regardless of the latter's relation to the moment of utterance.

  

Concept:
  


RelativeNonPastTense

Definition:  

RelativeNonPastTense locates the situation in question simultaneous to, or after, a contextually determined temporal reference point, regardless of the latter's relation to the moment of utterance.

  

Concept:
  


RelativePastTense

Definition:  

RelativePastTense locates the situation in question before that of a contextually determined temporal reference point (Comrie 1985: 104).


Comment:


Mithun cites this story as a case where the temporal point of reference is not the moment of utterance, but the 'narrative present', indicated by the absence of tense marking. What Mithun refers to as 'narrative present' may be considered a Relative Present. In this example, the narrative present is a moment that actually occurred in the past during an 1824 revolt. The Future and Past markings that occur later in the story are understood to be future and past relative to the narrative present, not the moment of the story-telling. In this story, the markers for Relative Future and Relative Past do not appear to differ from markers used in Absolute tense constructions. The point of reference has simply shifted.

Example:  

isam - saʔ - kuti
hiheʔl̓amnesus - waš
kanuʔam - saʔ - č̓amin
mehusalaxsum - waš
  what they had done (PAST) to him

isam - saʔ - kuti
hiheʔl̓amnesus - waš
kanuʔam - saʔ - č̓amin
mehusalaxsum - waš
  They would know (FUTURE)

isam - saʔ - kuti
hiheʔl̓amnesus - waš
kanuʔam - saʔ - č̓amin
mehusalaxsum - waš
  that a person had lied (PAST) badly

isam - saʔ - kuti
hiheʔl̓amnesus - waš
kanuʔam - saʔ - č̓amin
mehusalaxsum - waš
  He was trembling

isam - saʔ - kuti
hiheʔl̓amnesus - waš
kanuʔam - saʔ - č̓amin
mehusalaxsum - waš
  from what he had suffered (PAST)

isam - saʔ - kuti
hiheʔl̓amnesus - waš
kanuʔam - saʔ - č̓amin
mehusalaxsum - waš
  They laid him at the door of the Mission (NO TENSE MARKER)

isam - saʔ - kuti
hiheʔl̓amnesus - waš
kanuʔam - saʔ - č̓amin
mehusalaxsum - waš
  so that the people would see (FUTURE)

Language: Chumash
Source: Mithun (1999:160-2)
  

Concept:
  


RelativePresentTense

Definition:  

RelativePresentTense locates the situation in question simultaneously with some contextually determined temporal reference point.


Comment:


Mithun cites this story as a case where the temporal point of reference is not the moment of utterance, but the 'narrative present', indicated by the absence of tense marking. What Mithun refers to as 'narrative present' may be considered a Relative Present. In this example, the narrative present is a moment that actually occurred in the past during an 1824 revolt. The Future and Past markings that occur later in the story are understood to be future and past relative to the narrative present, not the moment of the story-telling. In this story, the markers for Relative Future and Relative Past do not appear to differ from markers used in Absolute tense constructions. The point of reference has simply shifted.

Example:  

isam - saʔ - kuti
hiheʔl̓amnesus - waš
kanuʔam - saʔ - č̓amin
mehusalaxsum - waš
  what they had done (PAST) to him

isam - saʔ - kuti
hiheʔl̓amnesus - waš
kanuʔam - saʔ - č̓amin
mehusalaxsum - waš
  They would know (FUTURE)

isam - saʔ - kuti
hiheʔl̓amnesus - waš
kanuʔam - saʔ - č̓amin
mehusalaxsum - waš
  that a person had lied (PAST) badly

isam - saʔ - kuti
hiheʔl̓amnesus - waš
kanuʔam - saʔ - č̓amin
mehusalaxsum - waš
  He was trembling

isam - saʔ - kuti
hiheʔl̓amnesus - waš
kanuʔam - saʔ - č̓amin
mehusalaxsum - waš
  from what he had suffered (PAST)

isam - saʔ - kuti
hiheʔl̓amnesus - waš
kanuʔam - saʔ - č̓amin
mehusalaxsum - waš
  They laid him at the door of the Mission (NO TENSE MARKER)

isam - saʔ - kuti
hiheʔl̓amnesus - waš
kanuʔam - saʔ - č̓amin
mehusalaxsum - waš
  so that the people would see (FUTURE)

Language: Chumash
Source: Mithun (1999:160-2)
  

Concept:
  


RelativeTense

Definition:  

RelativeTense locates the situation in question in relation to a contextually determined temporal reference point, regardless of the latter's temporal relation to the moment of utterance (Comrie 1985: 56).

  

Concept:
  


RelevanceAspect

Definition:  

RelevanceAspect encodes the degree to which some event is relevant in relation to some reference time (Give001: 296).

  

Concept:
  


RemoteFutureTense

Definition:  

RemoteFutureTense locates the situation in question at a time that is considered relatively distant. It is characteristically after the span of time culturally defined as 'tomorrow' (Dahl 1985:121; Comrie 1985:94).


Comment:


The affix kũ- in the first example may be used to mark either Hodiernal Past or Hodiernal Future depending on what aspect markers co-occur with it in the verb. Also, in the examples above, the final vowel of each verb is phonological, hence there is no correspondent for it in the interlinear gloss.

Example:  

Kamau
Kamau
a -
2.SG-
kũ -
HODFUT-
nyu -
drink
a
ũcũrũ
14.porridge
  Kamau will drink porridge (within the day)

Kamau
Kamau
a -
2.SG-
rĩĩ -
CLOSEFUT-
nyu -
drink
a
ũcũrũ
14.porridge
  Kamau will drink porridge (within the next few days)

Kamau
Kamau
a -
2.SG-
rĩĩ -
REMFUT-
nyu -
drink
a
ũcũrũ
14.porridge
  Kamau will drink porridge (sometime beyond a few days from now)

Language: Gikuyu
Source: Mugane (1997)
  

Concept:
  


RemotePastTense

Definition:  

RemotePastTense locates the situation in question prior to the present moment, usually more than a few days ago (Dahl 1985:121; Comrie 1985:88).


Comment:


Bybee, et al divide past tense systems into those that refer to daily cycles and those that do not. Typically, languages with past tenses that refer to a daily cycle will have tense that specifies 'today' and all others will refer to spans of time prior to 'today' (Bybee, et al 1994:99, Dahl 1985:125; Comrie 1985:93). Cocama is such a language. The examples above illustrate its three-way system of remoteness distinctions in the past tense.

Example:  

Ritama -
town-
ca
to
tutsu -
go-
tsuri
REMPST
  I went to town a long time ago

Ritama -
town-
ca
to
tutsu -
go-
icuá
PREHODPST
  I went to town yesterday/a few days ago

Ritama -
town-
ca
to
tuts -
go-
ui
HODPST
  I went to town today

Language: Cocama-cocamilla
Source: Bybee, Perkins, and Pagliuca (1994:98-99),Faust (1978)
  

Concept:
  


SecondHandEvidential

Definition:  

SecondHandEvidential, also called the quotative, encodes the fact that the speaker came to believe the content of the expression from communicating with someone else (Palmer 2001: 40).


Comment:


Palmer refers to Secondhand Evidential as 'quotative'

Example:  

díiga
soccer
apé -
play-
yigi
3.SG.PST- SECEVID
  He played soccer (I obtained the information from someone else)

Language: Tuyuca
Source: Palmer (2001:36),Barnes (1984),Malone (1988)
  

Concept:
  


SelfConnectedObject

Definition:  

A SelfConnectedObject is any Object that does not consist of two or more disconnected parts.

  

Concept:
  


Set

Definition:  

SetOrClass that satisfies extensionality as well as other constraints specified by some choice of set theory. Sets differ from Classes in two important respects. First, Sets are extensional - two Sets with the same elements are identical. Second, a Set can be an arbitrary stock of objects. That is, there is no requirement that Sets have an associated condition that determines their membership.

  

Concept:
  


SetOrClass

Definition:  

The SetOrClass of Sets and Classes, i.e. any instance of Abstract that has elements or instances.

  

Concept:
  


SimpleOrthPart

Definition:  

SimpleOrthPart is the subclass of OrthPart whose members cannt be decomposed further into other instances of SimpleOrthPart.

  

Concept:
  


SimpleOrthWord

Definition:  

A SimpleOrthWord has no internal parts which are also WrittenLinguisticExpressions.

  

Concept:
  


SimplePastTense

Definition:  

SimplePastTense is a very generic AbsolutePastTense which locates the situation in question prior to the present moment, with no specification on the distance in time (Comrie 1985).


Comment:


Bybee, et al indicate that Inuit manifests a 2-way past distinction that makes no reference to daily cycles. The two subdivisions they reference are given in the second and third examples. The first example, with the affix glossed as PERF, illustrates a past that Fortescue claims is often understood as a general experiential past without any specified time. This might be analyzed as a Simple Past.

Example:  

Nuum -
Nuuk-
miis -
be.in-
sima -
PERF-
vunga
1.S.INDIC
  I have been to Nuuk

tuqu -
die-
riikatap -
REMPST-
puq
3.SG.INDIC
  He died long ago

niri -
eat-
qqammir -
RECPST-
punga
1.SG.INDIC
  I ate recently

Language: Inuktitut, Eastern Canadian
Source: Bybee, Perkins, and Pagliuca (1994:99),Fortescue (1984:272-3)