THE INTERNATIONAL PHONETIC ALPHABET (revised to 1993, updated 1996)
Copyright International Phonetic Association, from the Department of Linguistics, University of Victoria, Canada

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PULMONIC CONSONANTS
 
 Plosive
   
 
 
 
 
 Nasal
 
 
 
   
 Trill
   
 
 
 
   
   
 
 
   
 
 Tap or Flap
   
 
 
 
 
   
 
   
   
 
 Fricative
 Lateral   fricative    

 

 
   
   
   
   
   
 Approximant
 
 
 
 
 
   
   
 
 Lateral  approximant    
 
 
 
 
 
   
   
When symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a voiced consonant. Shaded areas denote articulations judged impossible.
CONSONANTS (NON-PULMONIC)
Clicks
Voiced implosives
Ejectives
Bilabial
Dental
(Post)alveolar
Palatoalveolar
Aveolar lateral
Bilabial
Dental/alveolar
Palatal
Velar
Uvular
Examples:
 p
 Bilabial
 t
 Dental/alveolar
 k
 Velar
 s
 Alveolar fricative
Vowels Front         Central         Back
Close
?
     
?
     
?
                         
Close-mid     ?
   
?
     
?
                             
Open-mid        
?
 
?
   
?
           
                 
Open            
?
       
?

OTHER SYMBOLS
 Voiceless labial-velar fricative  Alveolo-palatal fricatives  
 Voiced labial-velar approximant  Voiced alveolar lateral flap  
 Voiced labial-palatal approximant Simultaneous ? and x  
 Voiceless epiglottal fricative

 Affricates and double articulations
 can be represented by two symbols
 joined by a tie bar if necessary.

kp?
 Voiced epiglottal fricative
 Epiglottal plosive

DIACRITICS Diacritics may be placed above a symbol with a descender, e.g. ??
Voiceless
n?d?
Breathy voiced
b?a?
Dental
 t ?d?
Voiced
s? t ?
  ?
Creaky voiced
b?a?
Apical
 t ?d?
Aspirated
t^(h)d^(h)
Linguolabial
 t ?d?
Laminal
 t ?d?
More Rounded
??
Labialized
t^(w)d^(w)
Nasalized
e?
Less Rounded
??
Palatalized
t^(j)d^(j)
Nasal release
d^(n)
Advanced
u?
Velarized
t?d?
Lateral release
d^(l)
Retracted
e?
Pharyngealized
t?d?
No audible release
d ?
Centralized
e?
Velarized or pharyngealized
Mid-centralized
e?
Raised e?    (? ?= voiced alveolar fricative)
Syllabic
n?
Lowered e?    (?? = voiced bilabial approximant)
Non-syllabic
e?
Advanced Tongue Root
e?
Rhoticity
Retracted Tongue Root
e?
SUPRASEGMENTALS
Primary stress
Secondary stress
stress eg. ?fo?n??t???n
? Long e?
? Half-long e?
  ? Extra-short e?
Minor (foot) group
Major (intonation) group
Syllabic break
break eg.  ?i.kt
Linking (absence of a break)


TONES AND WORD ACCENTS
Level
Contour
e? or ? Extra high NOT YET
e? or ? High SUPPORTED
e? or ? Mid BY
e? or ? Low UNICODE
e? or ? Extra low
? Downstep ? Global rise
? Upstep ? Global fall


Some useful precomposed characters that do not fit into the official IPA.
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
? ? ? ? ? ?
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Miscellaneous modifiers.
?? ?^(j) ?^(l) ?^(r) ?? ?? ?? ?^(s) ?^(y)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
?^(x) ?? ?? ??